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De l'orature ancestrale à la littérature contemporaine des Dakotapi et des Paiwan : histoire(s) de résilience trans-autochtone

Abstract : Dominant societies, from the nineteenth to the twentieth century, tended to confine the arts and oratures of Indigenous Peoples in a museological system of protection. They aimed to establish themselves as the legitimate guardians of the languages and literatures of cultural minorities, further skewing already difficult relationships with Native Peoples. However, these Peoples themselves knew how to preserve the stories originating from their oral tradition, and they have subsequently reused cultural elements of their orature by reinjecting them in a modern literature. It is therefore necessary to take an interest in how some indigenous societies were able pass on their oral stories from generation to generation, despite the impact of colonization, to keep them alive in our “modern” world. Hence, this dissertation provides a trans-indigenous study of North America’s Dakotapi and Taiwan’s Paiwan’s ancestral oratures and contemporary literatures. The Dakotapi are a well-known People popularized by dominant societies in literary, cinematographic, commercial and musical works, whereas the Paiwan are amongst the most unknown indigenous populations, and their literature remains in the margins of current scholarly studies. The Dakotapi and Paiwan’s colonial histories bear similarities (colonization, assimilation, or identity and literary recovery). Yet, with regard to the Paiwan, this historical context entails the influence of two imperialist blocs, each of which imposed its own value system. Thus, this literary approach, of an older and emblematic case study, the Dakotapi, viewed in parallel with the Paiwan, in full creative literary effervescence, represents a unique challenge. It will allow the creation of methods of analysis and the establishment of some form of literary dialogue between them, in order to highlight the similarities and the differences of the oral and written productions considered within their own continental situation. The differentiated acculturation processes targeting the Dakotapi and the Paiwan, of the American colonial power on one hand, and on the other hand of the Japanese and Chinese colonial powers (yet modeled after American assimilation policies), all had a violent impact on the culture and identity of these Indigenous Peoples. However, just as the heroes and heroines from their respective oratures, the young literate indigenous adults, who graduated from American and Taiwanese governmental schools, diverted the graphic skills and the symbolic power of the colonizer to write down their own (hi)stories. The ability inherent to each People to create an Indigenous literature, founded on the organic model of the tribal society, rooted in a natural space and an ideal of harmony devoid of technical dominance and economical exploitation, leads us to address the concept of resilience through these new works. These are, by nature, committed to a cause, since in the ancestral stories, which inspired these works, atypical beings, the most vulnerable people, values of sharing and communal harmony, or even complementarity of the sexes, were defended. This research also stresses the crucial place that Indigenous literatures occupy on the contemporary global literary scene, by means of Indigenous-centered genres and themes, and self-referential critique and theories. These are literatures that draw their references, themes, and paradigms in their own Indigenous cultures, that were reclaimed by engaging in a reconquest of their tribal identity and sovereignty.
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Submitted on : Saturday, February 15, 2020 - 3:00:20 PM
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Fanny Caron-Scarulli. De l'orature ancestrale à la littérature contemporaine des Dakotapi et des Paiwan : histoire(s) de résilience trans-autochtone. Littératures. Aix Marseille Université, 2020. Français. ⟨tel-02480191⟩

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