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Synthèse et caractérisation de catalyseurs acido-basiques par greffage covalent sur supports carbonés. Application dans le domaine de la valorisation de molécules bio-sourcées

Abstract : Homogeneous catalyst applications are usually limited in industrial chemical processes because massive wastes are produced and catalyst separation with raw materials and products is inconvenient during industrial production processes. As a result, the heterogenization of homogeneous catalysts onto solid supports was often investigated and proven to be more promising for industrial applications. Nevertheless, not only the tedious catalyst synthesis but also the low catalyst loadings and the resulting low efficiencies contribute to the high cost of supported catalysts. To remedy the deficiency of supported catalysis, scientists have worked on direct functionalization of solid support via covalent bond building. Among the approaches of functionalization being investigated, the chemistry of diazonium developed by Griess is becoming more and more popular and attractive since this promising method enables to graft different organic moieties onto various solid supports. During past few years, the functionalization of carbonaceous materials was widely developed because carbon is an inexpensive and extensively available material. In this study, the spontaneous functionalization of carbonaceous materials (Darco KB-G; Norit SX2 and Vulcan XC72) can lead to basic or acid solids by respectively grafting different aminophenyl groups (phenylimidazole; N,N,dimethylaniline, aniline, phenylmorpholine) for basic solids and phenyl sulfonic group for acid solids, via diazonium chemistry.The functionalized solids were characterized by different technics (elemental analysis, N2 adsorption-desorption, TGA, SEM, FT-IR, XPS and Raman spectroscopy) and used in different model reactions to upgrade bio-resourced platform molecules, especially furfural. For instance, the usefulness and effectiveness of these new basic solids are illustrated with the Knœvenagel condensation between furfural and malononitrile under mild conditions leading to 2-furanylmethylene malononitrile and water. The basic solid Darco-0.5PDA exhibited high activity to the Knœvenagel condensation of furfural and malononitrile under mild experimental conditions (40 °C, Patm). The catalytic performance of functionalized acid solids was assessed in the acetalization reaction of dodecyl aldehyde with ethylene glycol at 60 °C under atmospheric pressure in both conventional and solvent-free PIC (Pickering Interfacial Catalysis) conditions. The experiments evidenced that the synthesized amphiphilic acid solid stabilized dodecyl aldehyde/ethylene glycol Pickering emulsions and demonstrated both good stability and activity in a solvent-free biphasic acetalization.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-02477549
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Submitted on : Thursday, February 13, 2020 - 2:34:50 PM
Last modification on : Friday, February 14, 2020 - 1:36:58 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-02477549, version 1

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Minrui Xu. Synthèse et caractérisation de catalyseurs acido-basiques par greffage covalent sur supports carbonés. Application dans le domaine de la valorisation de molécules bio-sourcées. Catalyse. Université de Poitiers, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019POIT2292⟩. ⟨tel-02477549⟩

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