Modélisation des effets des systèmes de culture sur la dynamique de la plante parasite orobanche rameuse en interaction avec les adventices

Abstract : Reducing pesticide use is a major challenge in agriculture and involves developing more sustainable methods that rely on non-chemical cropping techniques and biological regulations according to agroecological principles. Branched broomrape (Phelipanche ramosa (L.) Pomel) is a root parasitic plant which infects crops and causes dramatic yield losses worldwide. Managing broomrape is complex because it requires combining several cropping techniques whithin a global weed management strategy because broomrape is also able to infect non-parasitic weeds. The aim of this thesis was to stynthetize knowledge on branched broomrape dynamics in agroecosystems and to aggregate it within a mechanistic model in order to identify efficient management strategies from simulations. We synthetized knowledge from the literature, and acquired missing knowledge by setting up expriments (eg. mortality and dormancy of broomrape seeds) in order to model the complette life-cycle of branched broomrape. In order to predict the effects of cropping systems (crop succession and management plans) on broomrape dynamics and weeds in interaction, we connected our broomrape model to two existing models : a model of the effects of cropping systems on weed dynamics and a root growth model (roots being the infection site). The simulations allowed to identify promising combinations of techniques to control both broomrape and weeds, and revealed that weeds may regulate broomrape.
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Olivia Pointurier. Modélisation des effets des systèmes de culture sur la dynamique de la plante parasite orobanche rameuse en interaction avec les adventices. Agronomie. Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019UBFCK058⟩. ⟨tel-02477169⟩

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