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Potentiel antidiabétique de métabolites de polyphénols : les urolithines

Abstract : The objective of our thesis was to study the anti-diabetic potential of metabolites of ellagic acid tanins, present notably in pomegranate and nuts, that are formed by the colon microbiote. The metabolites are urolithins A, B, C and D.The first part of thesis is bibliographic and reviews: •The control of glycemic plasma levels, and in particular the role of insulin secretion in this process; •The pathophysiology of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D); •The various polyphenols and their metabolites, along with their potential anti-diabetic activity.The second part describes the effects of urolithins on various experimental models: •On a model of insulin secreting beta cells (the INS-1cell line), urolithins concentration-dependently amplified insulin secretion induced by glucose, but also by insulinotropic drugs used in the treatment of T2D such as a GLP-1 analogue or a sulfonylurea. In addition, urolithins were able to induce insulin secretion on cells rendered unresponsive to glucose by oxidative stress. •The insulinotropic effect of urolithins was also confirmed on isolated rat islets of Langerhans. •As urolithin C appeared to be the most promising antidiabetic compound, we further characterized its activity on an ex vivo model mimicking the physiological situation, the isolated infused pancreas. While urolithin C (20µM) had no effect in the presence of 5 mM glucose concentration, it amplified the stimulation of insulin secretion in the presence of 8.3mM glucose. The effect of urolithin C was also strictly glucose-dependent, as insulin secretion immediately returned to basal level when glucose concentration was switched from 8.3 to 5mM glucose in the presence of urolithin C. •We also conducted studies aiming at designing a validated methodology for rat plasma urolithin C determination using a liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method. The applicability of this assay was demonstrated in a preclinical pharmacokinetic study carried out in rats receiving intraperitoneal administration of urolithin C (10mg/kg). We found that the urolithin C followed a three-compartment model, suggesting a long-term tissue storage of urolithin C.Some other (confidential) results, not described in this abstract, confirmed urolithin C as a potential glucose-dependent insulinotropic treatment for type 2 diabetes.
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Morgane Bayle. Potentiel antidiabétique de métabolites de polyphénols : les urolithines. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Montpellier, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017MONTT018⟩. ⟨tel-02475845⟩

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