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La technique et l'Être chez Michel Foucault

Abstract : This work is aimed at clearing how Foucault elaborated his critique of the man as central figure in the modern episteme: problem which he had taken from the anti-humanist thinking widely spread in the France after the World War II. In doing so, the philosopher invented a new form of knowledge that couldn’t be reduced to the modern knowledge centered on the man as a “doublet empirico-transcendantal”. Then, what is it that this new form of knowledge? In our thesis, we try to show that, for Foucault, this new knowledge consisted of the ‘play of technic (jeu de la technique)’. Though the two concepts – play and technic – aren’t subject of previous research, nor of the philosopher’s own texts, the thought on them can be found, according to us, from his first work to his last Cours au Collège de France, inculding his work on the power and the ‘political technology of the body’. Through our research, we clarify, on the one hand, that the technic in a foucauldian sens means the ‘impersonal production of forms in the positivity of language and body’; from this point of view, it isn’t based neither on the subject nor object, but it does produce various forms of subject and object. On the other hand, we defend that the concept of ‘Being (Être)’ is considered by him as a ‘play of truth’ or the ‘strategy of truth’ which take place in the order of the ‘positive’, not in that of the ‘fundamental’. Throughout our analysis of all his works – from beginning to end –, the purpose of our thesis is to demonstrate that it is on the basis of his reflection upon this play of technics that he was able to develop his critique of the modern episteme as well as the man. To do so, our thesis will advance in the following five steps: 1. to explain how Foucault described the appearance of the man at the threshold of modern age; 2. to define his concept of knowledge in the support of his early texts on the play of language ; 3. to show the relation between positivity of the technic and strategy of the truth in the light of his works on the power and the political technology of body ; 4. to clarify the connection between the technic of the self (technique de soi) and the technology of the self (technologie de soi); 5. to explain the problematization which, in discussing the notion of ‘parehsia’.
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Yudai Shimizu. La technique et l'Être chez Michel Foucault. Philosophie. Université Charles de Gaulle - Lille III, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LIL3H013⟩. ⟨tel-02470743⟩

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