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Reconnaissance de l’autochtonie et déclinisme environnemental au sein des Parcs nationaux français : L’exemple du Parc national de La Réunion

Abstract : The main purpose of this thesis is about the recognition of local and indigenous people within protected areas in general and French National Parks in particular. From global to local scales, this process appears to be the result of an axiological principle that is not necessarily new but which nevertheless increasingly conditions the legitimacy and effectiveness of public environmental action. The recognition of local and indigenous people would thus have become one of the conditions for achieving greater environmental justice within protected areas, particularly internationally.We question how this process has been extended to French National Parks, in particular through the analysis of the causes and effects of their recent reform (2006). How could this recognition be taken up and possibly redefined in the institutionalization of the so-called "new generation" national parks? Consequently, to what effects does this "French-style" recognition make it possible to achieve locally, in terms of environmental inequality? Our demonstration is based on the notion of "indigenous capital" (Retière, 2003) and argues that local social groups able to demonstrate their "indigenous environmental capital" to national park management authorities would be in the best position to keep intact their uses of these protected areas.To better address the issue of local people’s recognition "under conditions", we investigated the recent Reunion Island National Park (2007), presented with the Amazonian Park of French Guyana and the Calanques National Park as new generation parks. This survey, based on several other points of comparison, leads us to see Reunion Island National Park (PNRun) as an ecocentric integrating framework of different global and territorial narratives. “Environmental declinism”, both local and globalized, is the most prominent of these stories. Nevertheless, a “local cultural” and an “economic catch-up” narratives coexist with the first one. The PNRun, urged to recognize them due to the doctrine of sustainable development, appears as an ever-changing and unstable combination of these three - potentially contradictory - narratives.The traditional and customary conflicts within French National Parks (Larrère, 2009) can thus be understood as part of a competition between stories and their bearers, who can challenge or support the National Park's own way of administering, but also of "telling" the territory that supports it. The current challenge for French National Parks, in regard of the 2006 reform, is to allow and accept that this policy narrative is the result of a collective construction, and no longer an exercise reserved for some scientific, political and social elites who have always constituted its preferred audiences. In a postcolonial context such as on Reunion Island, this challenge seems all the more acute as the local "concern" for a narrative which is reparative of cultural, social and environmental injustices is important, even sine qua non.
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Bruno Bouet. Reconnaissance de l’autochtonie et déclinisme environnemental au sein des Parcs nationaux français : L’exemple du Parc national de La Réunion. Sociologie. Université de Bordeaux, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019BORD0178⟩. ⟨tel-02470519⟩



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