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Impact des changements climatiques sur la biodiversité marine tropicale : le cas des oiseaux marins de l’océan Indien occidental

Abstract : Climate change will affect terrestrial and marine ecosystems, but the consequences in terms of global biodiversity distribution are still unclear. Studies about selection of marine habitats and trends caused by global warming are growing. The telemetric monitoring provide valuable information on the spatial and temporal variability on distribution of marine predators. All the issues are very important, we have decided to focus on seabirds. The first objective of this thesis project is to study the distribution and selection of foraging habitat of tropical seabirds during their reproductive phase and during their migrations. To characterize the habitat of an abiotic point of view. The second objective of this thesis project is to use scenarios for ocean habitats produced by IPCC to simulate, using habitat models, the temporal evolution of the distribution of suitable habitat. The third objective of this thesis project is to use the available monitoring data to identify "hotspots" of biodiversity. We looked, at first, the puffins Pacific. More particularly, we studied the variations between the different colonies of the same species, from the viewpoint of the distribution, activity and habitat selection. Then we studied the impact of the evolution of climate change on wintering habitat of Barau’s Petrels (Pterodroma baraui). We built habitat selection models. These models were then used to predict the evolution of wintering habitat in 2100, according to different IPCC scenarios. Finally, we have compiled the available telemetry data on seabirds, sea turtles and marine mammals to study the distribution of marine megafauna in the Indian Ocean, and to identify hotspots of high density and high diversity. To establish, in time, protected marine areas.
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Brice Legrand. Impact des changements climatiques sur la biodiversité marine tropicale : le cas des oiseaux marins de l’océan Indien occidental. Biodiversité. Université de la Réunion, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016LARE0043⟩. ⟨tel-02468036⟩

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