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L'introduction d'une éducation au cinéma et à l'audiovisuel à l'école de 1945 à nos jours

Abstract : How can we explain the still reduced presence of film education at school while sound motion pictures are nowomnipresent?A detour through the sociology of the curriculum, the sociology of education and pragmatic sociology allowed us torefine the problematic and to elaborate the following questioning: what are, in France, in the second half of the twentiethcentury, the controversies regarding the introduction of film and audiovisual education in schools, which, through uncertaincompromises made in the light of the justifications mobilized, led curricula to take the academic form they have today ? And,from a more deliberately prospective perspective, how can one imagine, on the basis of these findings, a curricular evolutionof film and audiovisual education likely to articulate aesthetic, civic and emancipatory dimensions?The thesis consists of six chapters, in the first, the theoretical framework is the subject of a development that leads tothe formulation of the problematic. Using a socio-historical approach, the second and third chapters attempt to analyzedifferent corpora, mainly the journals Images et Son and the Cahiers pédagogiques, examining the construction of film as anobject of teaching from the end of the 19th century to the 1960s (Chapter 2) then the pedagogical and civico-artisticcontroversies surrounding the schooling of cinema, from the 1960s to the 1980s (Chapter 3). In the fourth and fifth chapters,the analysis of the programs, of various interviews and course observations makes it possible to study the compromises madebetween the 1980s and the 2000s : at the educational level, a real but unfinished entry into the school form (Chapter 4), at thecivico-artistic level, the cinematographic culture envisioned as a means of emancipation is struggling to impose itself (Chapter5). The last chapter examines the period from the years 2000 to today, evoking the beginnings of change and the reflectionsthat began to be carried out in order to overcome controversies.Faced with fervent and inspired cinephiles who remain suspicious of the school system, the idea of making cinema apart of the School, by maintaining the link between citizen and artistic aims and an educational approach that favorsinvolvement of the student in his learning has not yet won. The balance of power has not made it possible to impose the needfor a massive entry of film and audiovisual education with emancipatory aims in class time, teacher training and certificationtests. Cinema was allowed to enter school only in its artistic form, which led to a global "sprinkling" and a fragmentarydisciplinarization that was largely insufficient in view of the underlying democratic issues.In a world saturated with images of all kinds, there is, however, in our view, a real urgency to make room for learningthe audiovisual language and to stop ignoring, alongside the sensitive and artistic dimensions that are certainly essential, thetheoretical and analytical approaches that have been progressively developed, especially at university, on sound motionpictures as a whole and which are likely to help develop an essential critical mind for the citizens of tomorrow.
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Camille Degryse. L'introduction d'une éducation au cinéma et à l'audiovisuel à l'école de 1945 à nos jours. Education. Université de Lyon, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LYSE2057⟩. ⟨tel-02466656⟩



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