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Récit et médiation scientifique "sur le terrain" en géologie : une approche épistémologique et didactique de la mise en récit dans les situations de médiation de la géologie in situ

Abstract : This doctoral research focuses on situations of mediation of geological knowledge in-situ. In particular, she wonders about the modalities of producing a speech by "field" mediators-guides, who reconstruct the history of a geosite. More specifically, this research studies the way in which geological knowledge convenes the narrative and how they articulate the two functionalist and historical approaches of field geology. Through a case study, she explores the epistemological and didactic dimensions of the narratives implemented in these "on the ground" scientific mediations. In an epistemological analysis of field geology, we have highlighted the need to construct the "field real", and we have shown the various forms that temporality takes in historical reconstructions. We have also shown how the modes of reasoning of geology confront functionalism and historicism, through a duality law / history. We then entered a didactic framework to think the mediation of geological knowledge. It was a question of looking at how the mediator constructs the real world, and how he reconstructs events along the geological time. It must go beyond geological phenomena, and implement a rational historical approach, based on historical necessities. The constraints imposed on the field mediator are linked to the "capture" of his audience through narrations. But the story, through a game of intrigue and a break in the course of things, allows above all the reconstruction of geological history in its evolutionary framework, where the change organizes the direction - but not the purpose - of the story. The thesis defended is that the narrative intervenes in the mediators' discourse as a narrative process that builds the link between the "non-current geological" and the material universe that seems to be prevailing as a preponderant form of reality on the ground. Faced with a "naive" empiricism, we defend the idea that the narrative constructs an evolved narrative causality, at the origin of a rational historical step. Our methodology was built on the systematic search, thanks to the Transana software, of indicators of narrative, fictionalization and historical approach. The results produced show that narrative structuring narratives are very discrete, and mobilize a predominant form of functionalism, which focuses on phenomena (an-historical) and makes it difficult for mediators to deal with geological times. Nevertheless, geological histories are produced, including through storytelling, used by the mediator to organize events among themselves, within an evolving framework based on change. But the forms of narrative causality implemented, especially through analepses, do not engage real retrodictions of geological history and thus struggle to build a historical rationality. The thesis shows that the exploration of explanatory possibilities is often supported by the activity of fictionalization. These "fictions" invite the public to immerse themselves in the virtual world of geology. By implementing the fictional mimesis, the mediator "controls" these virtualities and thus takes charge of the non-current field by not enclosing itself in a purely masterful transmission of geological knowledge. The thesis concludes that the narrative is a real tool for the rational construction of history, which plays a fundamental role in the sciences, as they study objects that for the most part fit into a story. In this sense, through narrative, science controls time
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François Dessart. Récit et médiation scientifique "sur le terrain" en géologie : une approche épistémologique et didactique de la mise en récit dans les situations de médiation de la géologie in situ. Education. Université de Lyon, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LYSE1209⟩. ⟨tel-02466299⟩

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