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Energy efficient underwater acoustic sensor networks

Abstract : UnderWaterAcoustic Sensor Networks (UW-ASNs) are the newest technological achievement in terms of communication. Composed of a set of communicating underwater sensors, UW-ASNs are intended to observe and explore lakes, rivers, seas and oceans. Recently, they have been subject to a special attention due to their great potential in terms of promising applications in various domains (military, environmental, scientific...) and to the new scientific issues they raise. A great challenging issue in UW-ASNs is the fast energy depletion since high power is needed for acoustic communication while sensors battery budget is limited. Hence, energy-efficient networking protocols are of a paramount importance to make judicious use of the available energy budget while considering the distinguishing underwater environment characteristics. In this context, this thesis aims at studying the main challenging underwater acoustic sensors characteristics to design energy-efficient communication protocols specifically at the routing and MAC layers. First, we address the problem of energy holes in UW-ASNs. The sink-hole problem occurs when the closest nodes to sink drain their energy faster due to their heavier load. Indeed, those sensors especially the ones that are 1-hop away from the static sink act as relays to it on behalf of all other sensors, thus suffering from severe energy depletion. In particular, at the routing layer, we propose to distribute the transmission load at each sensor among several potential neighbors, assuming that sensors can adjust their communication range among two levels when they send or forward data. Specifically, we determine for each sensor the set of next hops with the associated load weights that lead to a fair energy depletion among all sensors in the network. Then, we extend our balanced routing strategy by assuming that each sensor node is not only able to adjust its transmission power to 2 levels but eventually up to n levels where n > 2. Consequently, at the routing layer, for each possible value of n, we determine for each sensor the set of possible next hops with the associated load weights that lead to a fair energy consumption among all sensors in the network. Moreover, we derive the optimal number of transmission powers n that balances the energy consumption among all sensors for each network configuration. In addition to that, it is worth pointing out that our extended routing protocol uses a more realistic time varying channel model that takes into account most of the fundamental characteristics of the underwater acoustic propagation. Analytical results show that further energy saving is achieved by our extended routing scheme. Second, to mitigate the dramatic collision impacts, we design a collision avoidance energy efficient multichannel MAC protocol (MC-UWMAC) for UW-ASNs. MC-UWMAC operates on single slotted control and a set of equal-bandwidth data channels. Control channel slots are dedicated to RTS/CTS handshaking allowing a communicating node pair to agree on the start time of communication on a pre-allocated data channel. In this thesis, we propose two novel coupled slot assignment and data channels allocation procedures without requiring any extra negotiation overhead. Accordingly, each node can initiate RTS/CTS exchange only at its assigned slot calculated using a slot allocation procedure based on a grid virtual partition of the deployment area. Moreover, for each communicating pair of nodes, one data channel is allocated using a channel allocation procedure based on our newly designed concept of singleton- intersecting quorum. Accordingly, each pair of communicating nodes will have at their disposal a unique 2-hop conflict free data channel. Compared with existing MAC protocol, MC-UWMAC reduces experienced collisions and improves network throughput while minimizing energy consumption.
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Chaima Zidi. Energy efficient underwater acoustic sensor networks. Networking and Internet Architecture [cs.NI]. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018USPCB003⟩. ⟨tel-02464899⟩

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