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Matériaux poreux à base de polyuréthane pour l’ingénierie tissulaire

Abstract : Porous materials are an ideal solution in tissue engineering since they can provide a three-dimensional environment to the cells that is close to their extracellular matrix while keeping suitable mechanical properties. In the first part of this Thesis we develop porous materials made from polyurethane (PU) whose architecture is controlled to allow cells colonisation and growth. These materials are subsequently surface-treated (polydopamine (PDA) coating and plasma treatment) to enhance the adhesion of the cells. We were able to show that the interconnection diameter (i.e. the aperture connecting two adjacent pores) has an important impact on the long-term cell survival and organization in the material. Polydopamine coating was shown to be efficient for fibroblasts, whereas plasma treatment promoted mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) colonisation. Besides, we also studied the influence of the PU formulation on the adhesion capacity of the cells. We demonstrated that at a given ratio between the reactants, cell adhesion could be allowed or prevented. Finally, we put a hydrogel of self-assembled peptides inside the pores of the material to provide an environment close to the extracellular matrix for the cells. We could show that the gel increases the proliferation ability of MSCs. In summary, this Thesis puts forward the important interplay between material properties and morphology of porous scaffolds.
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Gaëtan Lutzweiler. Matériaux poreux à base de polyuréthane pour l’ingénierie tissulaire. Materials. Université de Strasbourg, 2019. English. ⟨NNT : 2019STRAE019⟩. ⟨tel-02464777⟩

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