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Dysfonction endothéliale au niveau de différents territoires vasculaires en cas de polyarthrite rhumatoïde : physiopathologie et perspectives thérapeutiques

Abstract : Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the more frequent chronic rheumatism characterized by an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) mortality. This over-risk is the consequence of accelerated atherosclerosis, but also of microvascular damages, secondary to an endothelial dysfunction (ED). The reversibility of the ED makes of it a relevant therapeutic target to reducing excessive mortality in RA. In recent years, pathophysiology of ED in conductance arteries has been understood thank to animal models of arthritis, mainly the adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) model in rats. However, the effects of methotrexate (MTX), first-line treatment in RA, on ED are still unknown. Likewise, studies on ED of the coronary and cerebral vasculature are lacking.The aim of this thesis work was to study the effect of MTX on aortic ED and to dissect the mechanisms involved, but also to explore and characterize ED on MCA and coronary arteries in the widely-used model of adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) in rats.In a first study, our results showed that a 21-days treatment with MTX (1 mg/kg/week) did not improveaortic ED despite positive effects on clinical severity and systemic inflammation.In a second study, our data reported that the AIA model was associated with ED in middle cerebral arteries, involving a seminal role of arginase upregulation, as attested by the capacity of a treatment with nor-NOHA (40 mg/kg/day), an arginase inhibitor, to fully reverse cerebrovascular ED.In a third study, we demonstrated that the AIA model was characterized by a coronary ED positively correlated to plasma levels of endothelin-1 and angiotensin II, by a cardiac inflammation and hypertrophy, and an increased susceptibility to myocardial ischemia.In conclusion, our data indicate that positive effects on CV risk of MTX do not involve improving aortic ED, underlying the necessity to find accurate therapies targeting specifically the CV system as adjuvant treatments to the current anti-rheumatic drugs. Moreover, our data showed that the AIA model is relevant for mimicking cardiac and cerebrovascular impairments, and to study the impact of new treatments for reducing CV risk in RA.
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Romain Bordy. Dysfonction endothéliale au niveau de différents territoires vasculaires en cas de polyarthrite rhumatoïde : physiopathologie et perspectives thérapeutiques. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019UBFCE009⟩. ⟨tel-02464644⟩

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