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Ramsey theory without pigeonhole principle and applications to the proof of Banach-space dichotomies

Abstract : In the 90's, Gowers proves a Ramsey-type theorem for block-sequences in Banach spaces, in order to show two Banach-space dichotomies. Unlike most infinite-dimensional Ramsey-type results, this theorem does not rely on a pigeonhole principle, and therefore it has to have a partially game-theoretical formulation. In a first part of this thesis, we develop an abstract formalism for Ramsey theory with and without pigeonhole principle, and we prove in it an abstract version of Gowers' theorem, from which both Mathias-Silver's theorem and Gowers' theorem can be deduced. We give both an exact version of this theorem in countable spaces, and an approximate version of it in separable metric spaces. We also prove the adversarial Ramsey principle, a result generalising both the abstract Gowers' theorem and Borel determinacy of countable games. We also study the limitations of these results and their possible generalisations under additional set-theoretical hypotheses. In a second part, we apply the latter results to the proof of two Banach-space dichotomies. These dichotomies are similar to Gowers' ones, but are Hilbert-avoiding, that is, they ensure that the subspace they give is not isomorphic to a Hilbert space. These dichotomies are a new step towards the solution of a question asked by Ferenczi and Rosendal, asking whether a separable Banach space non-isomorphic to a Hilbert space necessarily contains a large number of subspaces, up to isomorphism.
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Noé de Rancourt. Ramsey theory without pigeonhole principle and applications to the proof of Banach-space dichotomies. Logic [math.LO]. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018USPCC208⟩. ⟨tel-02464512⟩

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