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Boîte quantique en interaction avec son environnement : excitation résonante pour l'étude des processus de décohérence

Abstract : Developments in quantum information processes require the use of solid state qubits that would emit on demand single and indistinguishable photons. Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) show an atom-like spectrum which makes them attractive in this regard. However, a single QD constitutes an open quantum system coupled to its surrounding solid-state environment, the phonon bath and the fluctuating electrostatic environment. This has important consequences on the coherence properties of the electronic system and the QD is a probe to study these fundamental interactions. Using Fourier spectroscopy and temperature-dependent resonant HOM experiments we show that these two mechanisms occur on very different time scales: spectral diffusion is a slow dephasing process acting on microseconds, while phonon interaction takes place in less than one ns. Then, the loss of ndistinguishability in HOM measurements is only related to dephasing induced by the coupling to the phonon bath. The TPI visibility is preserved around 85 % at low temperature, followed by a rapid loss of coherence. To fully understand the experimental results we developed a mircroscopic model for the electron-phonon interaction which allow to obtain analytic expressions for the dephasing rates. Below 10K the relaxation of the vibrational lattice is the dominant contribution to the loss of TPI visibility. This process corresponds to real phonon transitions resulting in a broad phonon sideband in the QD emission spectra. Above 10K, virtual phonon transitions to higher lying excited states become the dominant dephasing mechanism, leading to broadening of the zero phonon line and a corresponding rapid decay in the visibility.
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Antoine Reigue. Boîte quantique en interaction avec son environnement : excitation résonante pour l'étude des processus de décohérence. Physique Quantique [quant-ph]. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017PA066731⟩. ⟨tel-02464494⟩

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