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Le rôle des Annexines dans la réparation membranaire des cellules musculaires squelettiques humaines

Abstract : Muscular dystrophy encompasses a group of genetic disorders which cause progressive weakness and wasting of skeletal muscle. Among them, limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B (LGMD2B) is characterized by mutations in the dysferlin gene leading to several dysfunctions including a failure in cell membrane repair process. Cell membrane disruption is a physiological phenomenon induced by mechanical stress, such as contraction of muscle fibers. Thus, eukaryotic cells have a repair protein machinery ensuring a rapid resealing of large cell membrane ruptures. The exhaustive list of components of the repair machinery and their interplay remain to be established.The annexin (Anx) family consists of twelve soluble proteins in mammals and share the property of binding to membranes exposing negatively charged phospholipids in a Ca2+-dependent manner. Several studies have shown the involvement of Anx (AnxA1, A2, A4, A5, A6 and A7) in membrane repair of different cell types (muscle, cancer, endothelium…) in different species (mouse, zebrafish, human…). The presence of different Anx in skeletal muscle, together with the participation of several members of the Anx family in membrane repair processes, raise the question of a collective role of these proteins in the protection and repair of sarcolemma injuries.The PhD project aimed 1) at identifying Anx that are essential for membrane repair in human skeletal muscle cells, 2) developing a correlative light and electron microscopy to study the wounded site and the Anx distribution at high resolution, 3) elucidating the function of each Anx in this process and 4) analyzing Anx in dystrophic muscle cells. Using approaches including cellular and molecular biology, fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, we studied the behavior of Anx during sarcolemma damage.We showed that AnxA1, A2, A4, A5 and A6 are expressed in human myoblasts and myotubes, and are recruited at the disruption site within seconds after the sarcolemmal damage, forming a dense structure outside the cell, named the “cap” domain. Furthermore, we determined the relative order of Anx recruitment at the disruption site. The first Anx recruited are AnxA1, followed by AnxA6 and A5, the less sensitive to Ca2+. The last Anx recruited are the most sensitive to Ca2+, AnxA4 and A2. AnxA2 and A4 are instead rapidly recruited to intracellular vesicles present deeper in the cytosol. We also studied the ultrastructure of the disruption site at high resolution. Our results revealed that the “cap” domain correspond to a disorganized membrane structure, associated with the Anx. Thanks to our results and the literature, we have proposed a model for membrane repair involving Anx in human skeletal muscle cells. We also looked at the expression of Anx in dystrophic muscle cell lines from patients with limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B (dysferline deficient) and 1C (deficient in cadaveoline-3). We have thus shown that the pathological context disrupts the expression of some Anx, without altering their subcellular location.In conclusion, this work shows that several members of the Anx family are involved in membrane repair and act together to repair plasma membrane damage. The implication of Anx in other pathologies, such as preeclampsia or cancer, reinforces the interest of their study in the process of membrane repair.
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Coralie Croissant. Le rôle des Annexines dans la réparation membranaire des cellules musculaires squelettiques humaines. Biologie cellulaire. Université de Bordeaux, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019BORD0316⟩. ⟨tel-02464307⟩

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