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Analyse multicritère des politiques publiques environnementales dans l'Union Européenne

Abstract : The European Union has an ambitious agenda to deal with the effects of climate change, the European institutions must now take environment into account within the framework of its policies. The objective of my thesis is to evaluate the impacts of European public policies on agriculture and environment, to measure their crossed effects and to assess the potential for a better coordination of these policies. The thesis aims to enrich the economic analysis on important issues refocused on the reduction of agricultural greenhouse gas emissions in the EU and the level of agricultural production, from a quantitative perspective. The methodology is based on a mathematical programming model that simulates the European agricultural supply (AROPAj), using data from the Farm Accountancy Data Network. The analysis is carried out at several levels, European, national, regional and sub-regional, taking into account the variability of the economic context that characterizes the European agriculture over the six years 2007-2012. We first assess how agriculture may contribute to the mitigation of EU GHG emissions and provide a detailed analysis of marginal abatement cost curves. The results show that, on average, over the period 2007-2012, EU agriculture may reduce its emissions by around 10%, 20% and 30%, respectively for emission prices of 38, 112.5 and 205 EUR/tCO2eq. We show that agriculture may offer substantial mitigation and that mitigation costs and potential vary in time and in space. The second issue studied concerns the compatibility between the increase in agricultural production and the reduction of the impact of agriculture on the environment. By introducing a primal approach (via a carbon price) and a dual approach (via a calorie target), we show that we can reduce GHG emissions and change agricultural supply while increasing the quantity of food calories. We extend the issue of GHG emissions by separating the prices of the two gases (CH4 et N2O). A differentiated price system allows to better adapt the climate regulation policy according to the time horizon on which we are projected, offering flexibility in reducing the emission abatement costs.
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Ancuta Isbasoiu. Analyse multicritère des politiques publiques environnementales dans l'Union Européenne. Economies et finances. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019SACLA019⟩. ⟨tel-02463999⟩

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