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Phosphoregulation of photorespiratory enzymes in Arabidopsis thaliana

Abstract : Photorespiration is an essential process in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, and it is triggered by the oxygenase activity of Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase (RuBisCO) to produce one molecular 3-phosphoglycerate and one molecular 2-phosphoglycolate. The toxic 2-PG is recycled by the photorespiratory pathway which includes eight core enzymes and takes place in chloroplasts, peroxisomes and metochondria and cytosol. Although the photorespiration leads to a reduced efficiency of the photosynthetic CO₂ assimilation and thereby is considered as a wasteful process, the growth phenotype of the photorespiratory enzymes can reflect the importance of this process in normal growth and development of air-grown plants. Normally, for most photorespiratory enzyme mutants, they exhibit small, chlorotic plants sometimes non-viable in air which are not observed when the mutants are grown under high CO₂ condition that limit the photorespiration by reducing the RuBisCO oxygenase activity. Photorespiratory cycle interacts with several major primary metabolic pathways, thus is a highly regulated and extensive works. Current data show that seven of eight core photorespiratory enzymes could be phosphorylated and the protein phosphorylation seems to be a critical regulatory component of the photorespiratory cycle. In order to better understand the regulation of the photorespiratory cycle, we explored the effect of SHMT1 and HPR1 phosphorylation/non-phosphorylation events on plant physiology and metabolism by several methods: Site-directed mutagenesis assay, complementation assay, activity assay, stomatal aperture assays, plant salt/drought resistance assays, metabolites measurement, gas exchange measurement. The results show the phosphorylation mimicking version of HPR1 at T335 results to a less HPR1 activity and retarded growth at the ambient air condition. For the phosphorylation mimicking version of SHMT1 at S31 resulted in a less stability leading to a reduced resistance to drought and salt stress. The decline of resistance against abiotic stress was mainly due to impairment in the closure of stomata which were unable to respond properly to ABA probably because of a default in the PLC pathway. So there results indicate that the phosphorylation of SHTM1 leads to a negative effect for the plant growth especially under stress condition. Thus, we propose that the SHMT1 can be phosphorylated at a basic level under normal growth conditions, once the photorespiratory flux is increased such under salt stress condition, the SHMT1 should be dephosphorylated to stabilize SHMT1 and sustain a high photorespiration flux to cope with reduced CO₂ availability.
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Yanpei Liu. Phosphoregulation of photorespiratory enzymes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Vegetal Biology. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2019. English. ⟨NNT : 2019SACLS052⟩. ⟨tel-02463840⟩

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