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Euclid weak lensing : PSF field estimation

Abstract : As light propagates through the Universe, its path is altered by the presence of massive objects. This causes a distortion of the images of distant galaxies. Measuring this effect, called weak gravitational lensing, allows us to probe the large scale structure of the Universe. This makes it a powerful source of cosmological insight, and can in particular be used to study the distribution of dark matter and the nature of Dark Energy. The European Space Agency’s upcoming Euclid mission is a spaceborne telescope with weak lensing as one of its primary science objectives.In practice, the weak lensing signal is recovered from the measurement of the shapes of galaxies. The images obtained by any optical instrument are altered by its Point Spread Function (PSF), caused by various effects: diffraction, imperfect optics, atmospheric turbulence (for ground-based telescopes)… Since the PSF also alters galaxy shapes, it is crucial to correct for it when performing weak lensing measurements. This, in turn, requires precise knowledge of the PSF itself.The PSF varies depending on the position of objects within the instrument’s focal plane. Unresolved stars in the field provide a measurement of the PSF at given positions, from which a PSF model can be built. In the case of Euclid, star images will suffer from undersampling. The PSF model will thus need to perform a super-resolution step. In addition, because of the very wide band of its visible instrument, variations of the PSF with the wavelength of incoming light will also need to be accounted for.The main contribution of this thesis is the building of novel PSF modelling approaches. These rely on sparsity and numerical optimal transport. The latter enables us to propose the first method capable of building a polychromatic PSF model, using no information other than undersampled star images, their position and spectra. We also study the propagation of errors in the PSF to the measurement of galaxy shapes.
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Morgan A. Schmitz. Euclid weak lensing : PSF field estimation. Cosmology and Extra-Galactic Astrophysics [astro-ph.CO]. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2019. English. ⟨NNT : 2019SACLS359⟩. ⟨tel-02462793⟩

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