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Taxonomy, phylogeography and distribution of the genus Monastria (Insects, Blattodea) in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

Abstract : The Brazilian Atlantic forest is one of the biodiversity hotspots with the richest species diversity and threat. It is located along the Brazilian Atlantic coast going south til Paraguay and Argentina in the interior of the continent. Due to its longitudinal and altitudinal gradients, complex geology and diversity of soils it harbors an enormous diversity of landscapes and ecosystems that gave rise to its rich biodiversity. However, this biodiversity is extremely threatened because this region is the one with the highest population size and density in south America. So, the Atlantic forest is now limited to less than 5% of its original surface and distributed in scattered fragments. Despite the recognized species richness, much remains to be known about several components of this biodiversity and their origin. Among the groups still poorly known are the insects. In order to contribute to bridge this gap, in this thesis I studied one genus of cockroach endemic from the Atlantic forest, Monastria Saussure, 1864 (Blaberidae, Blaberinae). I focused on the taxonomy, phylogeography and on the contribution of the data existing in natural history collections to model the distribution range. The study of the taxonomy consisted in the revision of the genus with the re-description of already known species and description of new ones. Since the known species were described very early, the description (and re-description) comprised the definition of new characters, and consideration paid to genitalia. In addition to that, old nomenclatural problems were solved, a key to species’ identification was provided, a key to the identification of nymphs of the genera of Blaberinae endemic to the Atlantic forest were provided. The second study was aimed to understand the diversification and distribution of the genus Monastria in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. This analysis indicates the importance of differential impacts of shifts in temperature between the Southern and Northeastern part of the Atlantic forest in the Last Glacial Maximum for explaining the present pattern of distribution. The third study is an evaluation of the data concerning Monastria available in Natural History Collections for estimating its distribution range based on Ecological Niche Models (ENM), and using the data from the field work designed to assess the presence of Monastria to validate the results. Here we showed that the dataset is biased in the environmental space. This oversampling in a climate class leads to models with suitable areas much smaller than that of the real distribution of Monastria. These biases increase model’s specificity and reduced sensitivity. To overcome this problem, we designed two forms of rarefaction and showed deleting points at random in the most biased climate class is very powerful to increase the sensitivity of the ENM.
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  • HAL Id : tel-02461869, version 1


Vitor Dias Tarli. Taxonomy, phylogeography and distribution of the genus Monastria (Insects, Blattodea) in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Systematics, Phylogenetics and taxonomy. Museum national d'histoire naturelle - MNHN PARIS, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018MNHN0004⟩. ⟨tel-02461869⟩



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