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Anisotropie des milieux poreux argileux et implication sur la diffusion de l'eau

Abstract : Clay minerals are ubiquitous at the surface of the Earth and can influence, among other properties, the permeability and the ionic exchange properties of soils and rocks due to their platy shape and their most often (sub)micrometric size. Thus, studying clay porous media is of prime importance for different research fields such as: the exploitation and conservation of natural resources, the tracking of pollutants or CO2 storage. While the physicochemical properties of the surface of clay minerals control the adsorption-desorption mechanisms of water and ions, it is the porosity and the anisotropy of the poral network that govern diffusion phenomenon within clay porous media. In this respect, the work presented in the following doctoral thesis focuses on the characterization of clay particle orientation and its influence on anisotropic diffusion properties of water in the associated pores. A first part of this manuscript gathers systematic structural analyses of various model and natural samples. One study presents the analyze of experimental and simulated stackings made from sedimented discs with a unique particle size. Results underlined a simple correlation between the particle orientation anisotropy and the poral network anisotropy. Then, an other study was performed on experimental media made of pure clay minerals for various mineralogical compositions and various preparation methods. Based on this data, a reference function was proposed to describe the experimental orientation distribution functions and was successfully applied to three natural porous media. These results aim to facilitate and improve the description of the preferential orientation of clay particles as part of a geometrical characterization of clay porous media. A second part of this manuscript try to describe the link between the anisotropy of the solid phase, previously characterize by the particle orientation, and the prediction of water diffusion coefficients in these clay porous media. A study using both simulated and experimental media was performed on kaolinite porous media presenting contrasted anisotropy and with all other parameters held equal (porosity of the medium, size and shape of particles). Results show a variation of water diffusion coefficients with a factor 2 in the longitudinal direction, compared to the compaction axis, and an anisotropic diffusive ratio varying from 1 (isotropic) to almost 5 (most anisotropic medium analyzed). Then, complementary measures allowed establishing a modified version of Archie’s law that predicts water diffusion coefficients from the porosity/particle orientation couple for a range of porosity of 30-60%. These results aim to improve the description of the orientational anisotropy of clay particles in macroscopic diffusion models of water. Simultaneously, the influence of a salinity gradient and the roles of interparticular and interfoliar porosities are discussed for the diffusion of water, Na+, and Cl- within vermiculite media (charged media with double porosity) for known structural organizations.
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Thomas Dabat. Anisotropie des milieux poreux argileux et implication sur la diffusion de l'eau. Sciences de la Terre. Université de Poitiers, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019POIT2277⟩. ⟨tel-02461352⟩

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