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Étude de surfaces sous contrainte à l'échelle atomique : application au cas du niobium

Abstract : The plastic deformation of body-centred cubic metals is the subject of extensive studies since more than half a century. It is now well established that the screw dislocations control the plasticity of these metallic metals. The reason for this is attributed to a non-planar configuration of the core of these dislocations, which induces a high friction force usually referred to as ‘pseudo-Peierls’. The underlying elementary mechanism is the thermally activated nucleation of kink pairs. While perfect screw dislocations do not have specific glide plane, the non-planar core configuration limits the number of possible slip planes. The slip traces observed at the meso and microscopic scales are wavy, which has leaded to the proposal of several possible slip planes.In this context, we propose an analysis at a finer scale, i.e. the atomic scale, of the slip traces produced by compressive stress on niobium single crystals at three temperatures in the thermally activated temperature regime, namely: 293 K, 200 K and 90 K. The analyses were carried out using a scanning tunnelling microscope under ultra-high vacuum environment. At this scale of observation, the slip traces are made up of crystallographic segments that can be associated with {011} and {112} planes. It is also noticeable that at 200 K and 293 K dislocation glide is observed in both the twinning and the anti-twinning directions. More importantly, all slip traces include segments that belong to {011} planes strongly supporting the latest ab initio atomistic simulations predicting a compact core configuration for screw dislocation.In this study, we also established that, at T = 293 K and 200 K, the sample surface may undergo drastic changes of its vicinal terraces, when they are close to emerging dislocations. The calculation of interaction forces, in the frame of isotropic linear elasticity, indicates that dislocations close to vicinal terraces do not play a major role regarding the stable positions of the vicinal terraces. However, they locally modify the chemical potential of the surface, thus enhancing atomic diffusion which is at the origin of the surface reorganisations experimentally observed.
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Benjamin Douat. Étude de surfaces sous contrainte à l'échelle atomique : application au cas du niobium. Physique Atomique [physics.atom-ph]. Université de Poitiers, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018POIT2274⟩. ⟨tel-02460672⟩

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