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De l'agrandissement des exploitations agricoles à la transformation des paysages de bocage : analyse comparative des recompositions foncières et paysagères en Normandie

Abstract : Symbolic landscapes of the countryside of the West of France, the bocage landscapes have undergone a series of transformations these last forty years : decrease in hedgerow density, land uses changes, plots extension, normalization and enlargement of farm buildings, spatial extension of wilderness… The intensity of landscape transformations highlights the contradiction between these landscape forms produced by a long agrarian history and the contemporary evolutions of farming systems. The transformation of hedgerow landscapes is generally attributed to the "productivist" turn of the French agricultural model. However, the socio-technical processes behind these changes are more rarely explained.The first purpose of this geography work is to study the effects of changing agricultural systems on agricultural spatial structures, based on a statistical analysis at the scale of the West of France. In a second step, the landscape and land dynamics of four study areas (Bessin, Bocage Virois, Sud Manche, Pays d'Auge), located in the dairy and bocage domain, have been studied between 2003 and 2016. This work is based on an original methodological device, set up in a geographical information system. This structuration of geographic information makes possible to (1) monitor the landscape dynamics (evolution of the hedgerow density, land cover and plot morphology changes) at a fine spatial and temporal scale and (2) to reconstruct the evolution of the mosaic of farm plots, by matching land-parcell identification systems across the time (2007, 2011, 2013). From this spatio-temporal database, we characterized the coevolution of landscape structures and farm territories across the time, in order to better understand the landscape consequences of farm enlargment.Finally, a field survey was carried out among 150 farmers equitably distributed in the four study areas, in order to apprehend the social, technical and productive consequences of the farms enlargment, which differ singularly according to the type of land trajectory followed.
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Thibaut Preux. De l'agrandissement des exploitations agricoles à la transformation des paysages de bocage : analyse comparative des recompositions foncières et paysagères en Normandie. Géographie. Normandie Université, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019NORMC036⟩. ⟨tel-02460556v2⟩

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