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Etude des facteurs de risque et de pathogénicité et de l’évolution spatio-temporelle de la maladie de l’œdème chez le sanglier (Sus scrofa) en Ardèche

Abstract : Edema disease has been a known disease in pigs for many years. The first cases recorded in a population of wild suids appeared in 2013 in Ardèche. A new outbreak of this disease then emerged in 2016 in the Pyrénées-Orientales on the border between France and Spain. Understanding the factors that enable its onset and transmission is necessary to anticipate future mortality from this disease. In this thesis, an epidemiological analysis of this disease in wild boar was carried out. Clusters of mortalities then emerged, highlighting a possible single and recurrent source of contamination over time. The introduction of a new method to study the detectability of wild boar corpses highlighted the difficulty of finding wild boar corpses in the forest. The latest epidemiological analysis using a Spatial point pattern model highlighted possible risk factors for onset and transmission, which were then analysed more precisely. Analysis of data from hunting tables in the Ardèche was carried out in order to detect variations in the density and J/A ratio of wild boar populations suggesting food stress in the wild boar, a prodrome or consequence of the disease. No dietary stress was detected during this analysis. Assumptions could be made to explain some observed variations: i) the direct consequence of the disease, ii) a particular environmental phenomenon and iii) a pathogenic event. The trail of the pathogenic event was deepened with the discovery of the PRRS (Pork Respiratory and Dygesic Syndrome). The pig-boar interactions, numerous in the Ardeche, were determined as potentially responsible for the passage of the bacteria between the domestic and wild compartment. A genetic study was also conducted to investigate the alpha-1-fucosyltransferase gene associated with the susceptibility of pigs to the disease. All the wild boars tested were susceptible to the disease.Further further analysis is needed in order to better understand this disease as well as the different risk factors for both onset and transmission.
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Geoffrey Petit. Etude des facteurs de risque et de pathogénicité et de l’évolution spatio-temporelle de la maladie de l’œdème chez le sanglier (Sus scrofa) en Ardèche. Médecine vétérinaire et santé animale. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019CLFAC036⟩. ⟨tel-02459895⟩

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