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Modélisation expérimentale de génération de tsunami par effondrement granulaire

Abstract : Various past geological events have shown that landslides near coastlines, involving volumes from a few thousand cubic meters to several cubic kilometers, can lead to tsunami waves with significant amplitude. The generated wave and the collapse both represent an important hazard for the population and infrastructure located on or near the coast. Realistic modeling requires considering the granular nature of landslides. Here, we developed a new set of small-scale laboratory experiments to investigate in detail the wave generated by the collapse of an aerial granular column into water. An entire set of parameters are tested: (1) the falling granular mass (height, volume, aspect ratio, grain size and density), (2) the water layer height and (3) the geometrical configuration (horizontal or inclined plane). From quasi-bidimensional experiments in a rectangular channel we record both the time evolution of the granular collapse and of the generated wave. We show that the wave generation process is driven by the collective dynamics of the granular collapse at the water free surface. We identify a clear linear dependence between the relative wave amplitude and a Froude number defined as the ratio of the granular front velocity and the solitary wave velocity. The wave amplitude reaches its maximum value at an intermediate water depth. The total energy transfer shows that only a few percent of the initial potential energy of the column is transferred to the wave, suggesting a considerable energy loss in the granular collapse itself. Finally, we highlight the low influence diameter and density of the falling grain in the generation of the wave. This suggests that the mass of the collapse is of low importance compared to its volume. Another interesting result is the linear dependence of the relative wave amplitude with the relative immersed volume of the final deposit. This allows us to estimate the wave amplitude generated by past or potential events in Nature. Despite the various scales and geometries of these natural events, and the uncertainty of the data, our empirical law, from our small-scale experiment, predicts waves similar to other numerical or experimental models.
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Manon Robbe-Saule. Modélisation expérimentale de génération de tsunami par effondrement granulaire. Dynamique des Fluides [physics.flu-dyn]. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019SACLS497⟩. ⟨tel-02459774⟩

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