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Vulnérabilité du procédé couplant charbon actif en poudre et ultrafiltration : vieillissement des membranes et rétention de composés organiques polaires

Abstract : The degradation of water resources by the presence of organic matter (OM) and micropollutants requires the implementation of robust drinking water production processes. In this context, many French municipalities such as Saint Cloud and Angers have decided to set up a powdered activated carbon adsorption process coupled to ultrafiltration (PAC/UF). PAC is used upstream of membranes to remove traces of micropollutants while UF membranes provide excellent and constant water quality over time. However, the feedback reveals a degradation of the separation performances related in particular to an aging of the membrane materials and a vulnerability of the process towards some emerging micropollutants such as polar organic compounds (PMOCs).The work carried out during this thesis aims to better understand the consequences of the chemical aging of the membranes used in these processes and to evaluate the micropollutants removal efficiency in order to propose optimization ways. More particularly it has been shown that the main cause of aging is the chlorine exposure of the membranes during washing phases modifying the properties of the materials. In fact, the numerous characterization tools used have made it possible to demonstrate a correlation between the degradation of the hydrophilic agent of the membranes and the increase in the permeability during exposure to chlorine. The study of the membrane performances revealed an alteration of the resistance to fouling towards OM for membranes exposed to chlorine. However, the results obtained to evaluate the selectivity performance of the membranes with respect to viruses have not underlined any major alterations. Adsorption tests have demonstrated the limited efficiency of PAC for PMOCs removal. Indeed, among the molecules tested, the most hydrophobic and aromatic molecules are effectively adsorbed on PAC while the more polar ones are slightly adsorbed. Finally, the use of nanofiltration or low-pressure reverse osmosis, with average rejection rates over 90%, makes them the technological solutions of choice for the removal of PMOCs.
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Jeannette Chokki. Vulnérabilité du procédé couplant charbon actif en poudre et ultrafiltration : vieillissement des membranes et rétention de composés organiques polaires. Polymères. Université de Poitiers, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019POIT2275⟩. ⟨tel-02459517⟩

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