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Electron-quantum-optics experiments at the single particle level

Abstract : In the last 25 years there were several reports on quantum-optics-like experiments that were performed with electrons.The progress is this young field of research brought up original techniques to trap, displace and manipulate electrons in solid-state devices.These advances opened up new prospects to study fascinating quantum mechanical phenomena such as tunneling or entanglement with electrons.Due to the controllability that is demanded in possible implementations of quantum logic circuits, it is now a particularly appealing idea to perform electron quantum optics experiments with single flying electrons.In this thesis we address two related, but conceptually different, electron-quantum-optics experiments at the single-particle level.All of the experiments that were conducted in the course of this thesis were performed at cryogenic temperatures with Schottky-gate defined devices in AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures.In a first experiment, we perform a Mach--Zehnder type electron interference experiment in the ballistic transport regime.Forming a large quantum dot in one of the interferometer branches, we study the phase shift in the wave function of a resonantly transmitted electron.In the course of our experimental investigations, we find signatures of a transmission behaviour which reflect the internal symmetries of the quantum dot eigenstates.Our measurements shed light on the long-standing question about a universal transmission phase behaviour in large quantum dots.We thus set an important milestone towards a comprehensive understanding of resonant transmission of single flying electrons through quantum dots.In a second experiment, we go beyond the ballistic transport regime.We employ surface acoustic waves to transport a single electron between surface-gate defined quantum dots of a tunnel-coupled circuit of transport channels.In this course, we develop two essential building blocks to partition and couple single flying electrons in such a sound-driven circuit.By exceeding a single-shot transfer efficiency of 99 %, we show that a sound-driven quantum electronic circuit is feasible on a large scale.Our results pave the way for the implementation of quantum logic operations with flying electron qubits that are surfing on a sound wave.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, January 29, 2020 - 1:03:07 PM
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Hermann Edlbauer. Electron-quantum-optics experiments at the single particle level. Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect [cond-mat.mes-hall]. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2019. English. ⟨NNT : 2019GREAY027⟩. ⟨tel-02459373⟩



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