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Towards a 3D building reconstruction using spatial multisource data and computational intelligence techniques

Abstract : Building reconstruction from aerial photographs and other multi-source urban spatial data is a task endeavored using a plethora of automated and semi-automated methods ranging from point processes, classic image processing and laser scanning. In this thesis, an iterative relaxation system is developed based on the examination of the local context of each edge according to multiple spatial input sources (optical, elevation, shadow & foliage masks as well as other pre-processed data as elaborated in Chapter 6). All these multisource and multiresolution data are fused so that probable line segments or edges are extracted that correspond to prominent building boundaries.Two novel sub-systems have also been developed in this thesis. They were designed with the purpose to provide additional, more reliable, information regarding building contours in a future version of the proposed relaxation system. The first is a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) method for the detection of building borders. In particular, the network is based on the state of the art super-resolution model SRCNN (Dong C. L., 2015). It accepts aerial photographs depicting densely populated urban area data as well as their corresponding digital elevation maps (DEM). Training is performed using three variations of this urban data set and aims at detecting building contours through a novel super-resolved heteroassociative mapping. Another innovation of this approach is the design of a modified custom loss layer named Top-N. In this variation, the mean square error (MSE) between the reconstructed output image and the provided ground truth (GT) image of building contours is computed on the 2N image pixels with highest values . Assuming that most of the N contour pixels of the GT image are also in the top 2N pixels of the re-construction, this modification balances the two pixel categories and improves the generalization behavior of the CNN model. It is shown in the experiments, that the Top-N cost function offers performance gains in comparison to standard MSE. Further improvement in generalization ability of the network is achieved by using dropout.The second sub-system is a super-resolution deep convolutional network, which performs an enhanced-input associative mapping between input low-resolution and high-resolution images. This network has been trained with low-resolution elevation data and the corresponding high-resolution optical urban photographs. Such a resolution discrepancy between optical aerial/satellite images and elevation data is often the case in real world applications. More specifically, low-resolution elevation data augmented by high-resolution optical aerial photographs are used with the aim of augmenting the resolution of the elevation data. This is a unique super-resolution problem where it was found that many of -the proposed general-image SR propositions do not perform as well. The network aptly named building super resolution CNN (BSRCNN) is trained using patches extracted from the aforementioned data. Results show that in comparison with a classic bicubic upscale of the elevation data the proposed implementation offers important improvement as attested by a modified PSNR and SSIM metric. In comparison, other proposed general-image SR methods performed poorer than a standard bicubic up-scaler.Finally, the relaxation system fuses together all these multisource data sources comprising of pre-processed optical data, elevation data, foliage masks, shadow masks and other pre-processed data in an attempt to assign confidence values to each pixel belonging to a building contour. Confidence is augmented or decremented iteratively until the MSE error fails below a specified threshold or a maximum number of iterations have been executed. The confidence matrix can then be used to extract the true building contours via thresholding.
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Georgios Papadopoulos. Towards a 3D building reconstruction using spatial multisource data and computational intelligence techniques. Artificial Intelligence [cs.AI]. Université de Limoges, 2019. English. ⟨NNT : 2019LIMO0084⟩. ⟨tel-02458545⟩

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