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Mise en forme topologique large-bande de la lumière

Abstract : Today, several beam shaping tools are available, some of them commercially, but most of themare designed for only one working wavelength. This thesis aims to develop several experimentalapproaches for broadband topological beam shaping of light. After the presentation of the state ofthe art, our work focuses on vortex shaping of polychromatic beam exploiting the spin-orbitinteraction of light. Concretely, we report the development of four techniques to modulate the socalledgeometric phase of polychromatic light fields. First, we describe anisotropic reflection frominterfaces that involves at least one uniaxial crystal. We identify a refractive index matchingcriterion enabling highly pure broadband phase control. Then we discuss the use of circularBragg reflection phenomenon inherent to the optics of cholesteric liquid crystals. This propertyallows the selective reflection of circularly polarized light over a bandgap while the reflected fieldacquires a geometric phase. These properties are exploited to design, fabricate and characterizestructured mirrors reflecting Laguerre-Gauss optical modes to a good approximation. The last twosolutions consist of vortex beam shaping using inhomogeneous anisotropic planar opticalelements, namely, topological defects that spontaneously appear in homeotropic nematic liquidcrystal films characterized by negative dielectric anisotropy. The first option is based on using twodefects in series while the other is based of parallel processing using an array of independentlycontrolled topological defects, each of them being dedicated to process distinct spectralchannels. The latter approach can be viewed as a spatial light modulator whose pixels areinhomogeneous and potential applications are proposed in the field of super-resolution opticalimaging and spatio-temporal beam shaping of ultrashort pulses.
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Mikaël Ghadimi Nassiri. Mise en forme topologique large-bande de la lumière. Micro et nanotechnologies/Microélectronique. Université de Bordeaux, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019BORD0187⟩. ⟨tel-02453859⟩

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