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Tourism leakage of accommodation in Bali

Abstract : Tourism has become the leading economic sector in Bali Province of Indonesia. However, the economic impacts of tourism have not been convinced to be full y beneficial for Balinese community. One of the reasons is tourism leakage that occurs when the industry imports both products and services to support tourism industry in Bali. So far, the amount of tourism leakage in Bali has not been calculated yet. Therefore, there is a need to ascertain the current amount of leakage in Bali tourism. The objectives of the study are: (i) to calculate the amount of tourism leakage from accommodation sector in Bali at micro (industrial) level; (ii) to calculate the amount of tourism leakage from accommodation sector in Bali at macro (regional) level; (iii) to evaluate the impacts of government subsidies and import reduction by accommodation sector on tourism leakage, job opportunity and income distribution; (iv) to evaluate the perception and preference of foreign tourists on imported and local products as well as the willingness of foreign tourists to spend their money to benefit of Balinese people; (v) to evaluate the points of view of hotel managers related to imported and local products as well as their willingness in reducing the use of imported product and (vi) to develop strategies in minimizing tourism leakage in accommodation in Bali. Research was designed through quantitative and qualitative approaches. Data was collected by using survey method at four main tourist destinations in Bali, namely: Kuta, Nusa Dua, Sanur and Ubud. There were 79 hotels selected based upon probability proportional to size sampling method which consists of three clusters namely 1,2,3 Star-rated, 4&5 Star-rated either chain and non-chain and Non Star-rated hotels. The number of respondents was 600 foreign tourists were selected as respondents. Calculation of tourism leakage on micro analysis was undertaken by using a method developed by Unluonen, et. al. (2011), meanwhile, on macro analysis was carried out by using a method proposed by Thorbecke ( 1988) which was based on the Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) of Bali 2010. Perception and preference of foreign tourists on imported and local products were analyzed by using JMP program, meanwhile, Interpretative Structural Modelling (ISM) was undertaken to develop strategies. The results show that based on the micro analysis, the highest tourism leakage of accommodation sector in Bali is at 4&5 Star-rated chain hotels (51.0 %), followed by 4&5 Star-rated non-chain hotels (22.7 %), 1,2&3 Star-rated hotels (12.0 %), Non-star rated hotels (8.8 %), and with the average leakage of 18.8 %. Based on macro analysis, tourism leakage of accommodation sector in Bali are as follow: (i) Leakage of Non Star-rated hotels is 2.0 %; (ii) Leakage of 1,2&3 Star-rated hotels is 15.7 %; (iii) Leakage of 4&5 Star-rated non-chain hotels is 7.1 %, (iv) Leakage of 4&5 Star-rated chain hotels is 55.3%; and (v) Average leakage of all types of accommodation is 19.5%. Foreign tourists significantly look for local products and are willing to spend their money for Balinese people. Hotel managers are willing to use local product as long as local products are available to substitute the imported products. Strategies for minimization tourism leakage are optimizing the potential of local products, develop agriculture and livestock; reduce the use of imported products for tourists, improve quality of local products and human resources, empower community, urge government to develop and implement supporting policies in minimizing tourism leakage, establish policy on restriction of foreign investment on accommodation in Bali, improve the role of Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Industry, Ministry of Trade and Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy. 7 Ps of marketing mix on service: product, price, place, promotion, people, process and physical evidence need to be implemented in order to support sustainable tourism in Bali
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Submitted on : Thursday, January 23, 2020 - 6:55:08 PM
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I Gusti Ayu Oka Suryawardani. Tourism leakage of accommodation in Bali. Business administration. Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I, 2015. English. ⟨NNT : 2015PA010071⟩. ⟨tel-02453449⟩



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