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Des technologies numériques pour l'inclusion scolaire des collégiens avec TSA : des approches individuelles aux approches écosystémiques pour soutenir l'individu et ses aidants

Abstract : Although inclusive education is essential for their socio-professional future, children and adolescents with ASD still face difficulties in accessing mainstream schooling. The progressive diffusion of technologies in society has encouraged the development of digital interventions for ASD. Nevertheless, previous literature reviews indicate that they focus mainly on the clinical aspects of ASD (with an over-representation of remediation approaches), but rarely directly on academic skills or parent-teacher relationships. Hence, the general objective of the thesis is to design and evaluate digital tools that promote the school inclusion of students with ASD, with four main contributions:1) Extraction of state-of-the-art (study 1): A systematic review was conducted to assess the effectiveness and usability of current digital technologies for clinical and educational purposes. This study confirms the prevalence of clinical aspects in this new interventional literature. The review of the methodology and results of the studies shows the importance of rigorously evaluating the effectiveness of these new tools, particularly with regard to their primary purpose (clinical and/or ergonomic).2) Design and evaluation of an application for emotional regulation assistance for inclusion in the regular classroom (study 2): An analysis of students' needs with ASD was carried out by studying relationships between socio-adaptive school-related behaviour with measures of sociocognitive and executive functioning. This analysis highlighted the critical role of sociocognitive skills for the socio-adaptive functioning of students with ASD, making it a preferred target for intervention (study 2a). From there, a mobile application to assist emotional regulation in the classroom was designed using participatory methods, involving families and professionals. The application was evaluated with 23 students in mainstream classrooms, including 14 with ASD (study 2b). This study revealed that 1) the system has been used successfully and independently in the regular classroom, and 2) it has been shown to be effective in supporting emotional self-regulation in middle school students with ASD.3) Evaluation of an educative application (study 3): A feasibility study has been conducted with an application for calculation through monetary exchange activities using a machine-learning algorithm for personalized learning. Promising results were obtained with middle school students with ASD and/or DI (N= 24) after a three-week intervention. This pilot study shows that a technology-based educational intervention can be relevant for teaching numeracy skills to students in specialized classes, which results in improved calculation skills and a high level of motivation after the intervention.4) Development of a digital tool for caregivers (study 4): Based on a needs analysis with a panel of parents, teachers and clinicians (N=86 out of 124 contacted), we developed a web-based student curriculum monitoring tool to promote collaboration and communication between the family, school and medical-social environments. A first prototype was developed after presenting models to families and professionals, opening up a perspective for our work with a study to evaluate its utility and its effectiveness.All the studies conducted are discussed and put into perspective with new avenues of investigation and, in particular, in relation to the consideration of theories of self-determination in methods for designing and validating digital interventions for children with ASD.
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Cécile Mazon. Des technologies numériques pour l'inclusion scolaire des collégiens avec TSA : des approches individuelles aux approches écosystémiques pour soutenir l'individu et ses aidants. Psychologie. Université de Bordeaux, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019BORD0258⟩. ⟨tel-02448909⟩

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