Ouverture des données de la recherche : de la vision politique aux pratiques des chercheurs

Abstract : The thesis investigates research data, as there is a growing demand for opening them. Research data are information that is collected by scientists in order to be used as evidence for theories. It is a complex, contextual notion. Since the 2000s, open access to scientific data has become a strategic axis of research policies. These policies has been relayed by third actors, who developed services dedicated to support researchers with data management and sharing.The thesis questions the relationship between the ideology of openness and the research practices. Which kinds of data management and sharing practices already exist in research communities? What drives them? Do scientists rely on research data services? Fifty-seven interviews were conducted with researchers from the University of Strasbourg in many disciplines. The survey identifies a myriad of different data management and sharing practices. It appears that data sharing is embedded in the researcher’s strategy: his main goal is to protect his professional interests. Thus, research data are part of a credibility cycle, in which they get both use value (for new publications) and exchange value (as they are traded for other valuable resources). The survey also shows that researchers rarely use the services developed in a context of openness. Two explanations can be put forward. (1) The service offer comes too early to reach researchers’ needs. Currently, data management and sharing are not within researchers’ priorities. The priority is publishing, which is defined as source of reward and recognition of the scientific activities. (2) Data management services are offered by actors outside the research communities. But scientists seem to be more influenced by internal networks, close to their research topics (like journals, infrastructures…). These results prompt us to reconsider the mediation between scientific communities and open research data policies.
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Violaine Rebouillat. Ouverture des données de la recherche : de la vision politique aux pratiques des chercheurs. Sciences de l'information et de la communication. Conservatoire national des arts et metiers - CNAM, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019CNAM1254⟩. ⟨tel-02447653⟩

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