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L'utilisation de l'information géospatiale comme outil d'aide à la réduction des risques de catastrophe ; Etudes de cas du gouvernorat de Baalbek-Hermel/Liban

Abstract : Given that natural disasters are spatial phenomenon, the application of geographical information systems (GIS) has proven to be a convenient and reliable tool for the Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) process. GIS can serve DRR as a database for data gathering, integration and incorporation,an output viewer, a tool for hazard maps production, a calculator for exposure, a model builderfor determining assets’ vulnerabilities, a near real time crisis tracker, etc… Nevertheless, GIS applications have been integrated unevenly across the different phases of the DRR cycle.Moreover, the effective use of these technologies requires further research and development,especially in developing countries where numerous barriers hamper the use of GIS for civil protection. The task is further complicated at the local level in rural areas such as our study area Baalbek‐Hermel, Governorate of Lebanon. Restrictions include limited human and financial resources and a lack of critical spatial data required to support GIS application to DRR. To what extent could GIS be efficient in DRR actions in a developing country like Lebanon where themajority of assets at risk is ever‐growing and the government has other urgent priorities than tocommit to DRR plans? Several case‐studies in Baalbek‐Hermel were taken to test these assumptions and discuss the adaptation of GIS techniques to make them effective and to be able to serve the whole DRR cycle; hazard, vulnerability, risk and damage assessment, emergency and evacuation planning, land‐use zoning, recovery and resilience building. Challenges in the deployment of GIS technologies in each afore mentioned phase of the DRR cycle and how they may be overcome were discussed, considering indigenous approaches for the application of technologies and innovations in DRR. The results of this dissertation suggested ways to control some of the barriers hampering the effective use of GIS for DRR in developing countries. Thus,DRR practitioners in Lebanon and other developing countries could harness this potential in anattempt to reduce hazard vulnerability and improve disaster reduction capacity.
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Rita Der Sarkissian. L'utilisation de l'information géospatiale comme outil d'aide à la réduction des risques de catastrophe ; Etudes de cas du gouvernorat de Baalbek-Hermel/Liban. Géographie. Université d'Orléans, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019ORLE1165⟩. ⟨tel-02447450⟩

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