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Essais sur deux enjeux majeurs des pays d'Europe de l'Est : l'endettement en devises étrangères et l'offre de travail

Abstract : This thesis deals with two distinct topics, both of them representing central issues for many Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries. The first part of the thesis focuses on foreign currency (FX) lending. Several previous studies point out that in many CEE countries, FX borrowing rose significantly before the crisis and has become a major challenge for firms, households and for fiscal and monetary policy. To evaluate the risks associated with excessive FX indebtedness, we investigate firms’ willingness to match the currency composition of their assets and liabilities and their incentives to deviate from perfect matching. Our results provide strong evidence to support the role of natural hedging, however, it is not the primary motivation for firms to choose foreign currency : it explains only about 10 percent of the overall corporate FX debt during the pre-crisis and 20 percent during the post-crisis periods. Most likely, the largest part of the corporate FX debt, at least in Hungary, corresponds to open carry trade positions held by non-financial corporations. The second part of the thesis is devoted to exploring the links between tax-benefit systems and labour supply at the extensive margin. The second chapter presents an alternative modelling strategy of labour supply to the two dominating approaches based on marginal calculus and on random utility models. Finally, the last chapter uses this model to quantify the difference between the Hungarian and the Czech participation rates that can be attributed to differences in taxation and welfare benefits. We find that the estimated labour supply elasticities for the Czech Republic are very close to the results for Hungary, suggesting that, at least in this dimension, individual preferences are similar in the two countries. Results suggests that about one-half of the total difference in the participation rates can be explained by differences in the tax-benefit systems.
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Gábor Kátay. Essais sur deux enjeux majeurs des pays d'Europe de l'Est : l'endettement en devises étrangères et l'offre de travail. Economies et finances. Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015PA010016⟩. ⟨tel-02444301⟩

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