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Detection of Water Pollutants using Label-free Electrochemical Immunosensors and Electrolyte Gated Organic Field-Effect Transistors

Abstract : Today, with the increase of population, the consumption of drugs and of chemicals in agriculture has dramatically increased. It becomes a worrisome issue because a large amount of these molecules, excreted to the environment, are not well eliminated by water-treatment plants (when they exist) and are therefore released without control into the ecosystem. In too large quantities, these drugs are poisons for living organisms, including humans. Classical analytical methods for the measurement of these chemicals already exist (classical separative methods such as gas chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, possibly coupled with mass spectrometry, etc). However, even if extremely precise and reliable, these techniques are difficult to apply for on-site monitoring and are usually costly. For this reason, my thesis focuses on novel analytical approaches to detect small organic molecules such as these pollutants. In a first part of my work, I developped an original immunosensor based on a competitive complexation and on an electrochemical (amperometric) transduction, for detection of diclofenac, which is a non – steroidal anti – inflammatory drug generally employed to protect patients from inflammation and relieve pain. The working electrode was electrografted with two functional diazonium salts, one as molecular probe (a diclofenac derivative coupled with an arylamine) and the other as redox probe (a quinone) also coupled with an arylamine, able to transduce the hapten-antibody association into a change in electroactivity. The transduction was designed to deliver a current increase upon detection of diclofenac (“signal-on” detection). The detection limit is ca. 20 fM in tap water, which is competitive compared to other label-free immunosensors. In the following part of my thesis, I kept the same original transduction approach (competitive immunoassay) but applied to an Electrolyte-Gated Organic Field-Effect Transistor (EGOFET) based on poly(N-alkyldiketopyrrolo-pyrrole dithienylthieno[3,2-b]thiophene) as organic semiconductor whose gate electrode was functionalized by electrografting a functional diazonium salt capable to bind an antibody specific to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), an herbicide well-known to be a soil and water pollutant. Molecular docking computations were performed to design the functional diazonium salt to rationalize the antibody capture on the gate surface. In the last part of my work, I propose an approach which takes profit not only of the capacitive coupling of the EGOFET but also on its sensitivity to electrostatic charges accumulated on the gate surface. To illustrate this in the field of sensors, I used a short peptide (Gly-Gly-His), known to selectively bind copper ions Cu2+. The peptide was immobilized by direct electrooxidation of the primary amine of the first glycine moiety. I demonstrated that GGH-modified EGOFETs can transduce Cu2+ complexation through significant changes of their output and transfer characteristics, in particular their threshold voltage (VTh).
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Submitted on : Friday, January 17, 2020 - 3:10:06 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-02443976, version 1


Thi Thuy Khue Nguyen. Detection of Water Pollutants using Label-free Electrochemical Immunosensors and Electrolyte Gated Organic Field-Effect Transistors. Other. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018USPCC187⟩. ⟨tel-02443976⟩