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Le rôle de la région régulatrice en 3' du locus des chaines lourdes d'immunoglobulines sur le développement des lymphocytes B1

Abstract : During B-cell development, the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus (IgH) undergoes three major genic rearrangements. During the early stages, before encountering the antigen (Ag), VHDJH rearrangements allow the generation of the Ig repertoire. During the late stages, after encountering the Ag, somatic hypermutation (SHM) increases the affinity of the Ig for its Ag, while class switch recombination (CSR) modifies its effector functions. All these genetic events are strictly regulated by cis-regulatory elements spread along the IgH locus, including the 3’ regulatory region (3’RR). The 3’RR extends over more than 30kb and contains four transcriptional enhancers, the first three displaying a palindromic conformation. The 3'RR controls B2 B-cell IgH transcription, cell fate, SHM and CSR but not repertoire diversity. B1 B-cells represent a small percentage of total B-cells differing from B2 B-cells by several points such as precursors, development, functions, surface markers and tissue distribution. B1 B-cells act at the steady state to maintain homeostasis and during the earliest phases of an immune response by secreting natural Ig (NIgM and NIgA). During my PhD, we investigated the role of the 3'RR on B1 B-cells. Similarly to B2 B-cells, the 3'RR controls IgH transcription, cell fate and SHM in B1 B-cells. In contrast to B2 B-cells, 3'RR deletion indirectly affects B1 B-cell repertoire diversity and has no effect on their CSR towards IgA. These results highlight, for the first time, the contribution of the 3'RR in the development of a B-cell population at the interface between innate and acquired immunity. Moreover, these results strengthen our knowledge of the role of the cis-regulatory elements of the IgH locus in the development of these two immune responses.
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Hussein Issaoui. Le rôle de la région régulatrice en 3' du locus des chaines lourdes d'immunoglobulines sur le développement des lymphocytes B1. Génétique. Université de Limoges, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LIMO0051⟩. ⟨tel-02441719v2⟩

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