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Structure et propriétés supraconductrices de films de nitrure de niobium épitaxiés par CVD à haute température

Abstract : The studies concern the development of superconducting devices for single photon detection. Niobium nitride (NbN) is a material suitable for the production of superconducting wires for the detector target. This work is opening up perspectives on the development of epitaxial niobium nitride films on sapphire by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The production of thin films (5-100 nm) is carried out at high temperature (1000°C to 1300°C) from niobium chloride and ammonia diluted in hydrogen (H2-NH3-NbCl5). The substrate is oriented single crystalline sapphire (Al2O3) (0002), aluminum nitride (AlN) (0002) or magnesium oxide (MgO) (100).The study of epitaxial relationships during the growth of niobium nitride on the sapphire substrate was first performed. Observation of the microstructures and crystalline orientations of the various films processed made it possible to highlight the relationships between the surface state of the substrate and the growth mode of NbN. The potential for using single crystal substrates such as MgO and AlN is discussed in the conclusion.The study of the growth process and the relationships between the working conditions and the "quality" of thin films made it possible to identify the experimental windows leading to epitaxial growth. The activation energy of the growth reactions and the supersaturation conditions favorable to epitaxial growth were calculated.The study of the interactions between the structural properties and superconducting properties of films has allowed the superconducting transition temperature to be linked to the density of atomic defects, microstructural defects, the thickness of the films and their stress state. There is a linear relationship between the interplanar space of planes parallel to the substrate and the superconducting transition temperature.Finally, the durability of ultra-thin films (5 - 8 nm) of niobium nitride was studied. The electrical and superconducting properties of films processed at 1000°C and 1200°C on sapphire substrates and epitaxial layers of AlN were analyzed over a period of six months. The properties of films change most notably during the first month. High temperature deposition limits the rapid degradation of the films and preserves their superconducting properties.
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Manoël Jacquemin. Structure et propriétés supraconductrices de films de nitrure de niobium épitaxiés par CVD à haute température. Matériaux. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019GREAI054⟩. ⟨tel-02441642⟩

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