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L’évaluation des politiques publiques de sécurité : résultats et enseignements de l’étude d’un programme de vidéosurveillance de la Ville de Montpellier

Abstract : The growth of CCTV deployment in France since the 90’s has shown interesting developments. . In the beginning, this result of technological progress is in violent opposition to ideological positions that see cameras only as a symbol. After some a period of time, due to a legitimation campaign that this thesis describes, surveillance cameras were emancipated from there liberticidal vision and were for a long time used in local and national security policy. Meanwhile, after more than two decades of their widespread use by local governments, there was never in France any reliable demonstration of the effectiveness of CCTV against crime in public areas. Therefore, present research interrogates this irrational promotion of CCTV while presenting results and implications of an empirical study on French local policy developing public surveillance webs in Montpellier.First of all, a description of national and local contexts will justify the usefulness and opportunity of CCTV policy assessment. This part of the thesis points to the lack of crime prevention policy evaluation in France and the lack of investigation into the methods that are available.Thereafter, the keystone of this thesis is the description of an empirical experiment conducted in Montpellier between 2012 and 2015 in a tripartite convention associating local government, a research centre and a PhD student. Voluntarily detached from the discussions surrounding the protection of individual rights, the author focuses on how CCTV results can be observed and measured, and what were these results in a particular research field.Relying on the first scientific assessment of a public CCTV program in France, this thesis explains the method, the difficulty and the results of impact measurements and assessment. The data collected provides reliable findings on the contributions of a CCTV system against problems of crime in France.This work also clarifies the situation of evaluation practices on crime prevention programs in France. Aware of some shortcomings in this field, the author draws on North American and British methods to support his approach. Influenced both by the rigor of Campbell collaboration standards and the relevance of the realist approach, the author proposes a method to combine these two opposing doctrines of evaluation.Finally, after examining the internal and external validity of the evaluation results, this thesis reveals that CCTV development seems insensitive to its pragmatic questioning. Despite reliable results demonstrating a marginal contribution of CCTV cameras against crime in public areas, the success of this tool seems to rely on a pernicious mechanics that the present thesis attempts to describe
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Guillaume Gormand. L’évaluation des politiques publiques de sécurité : résultats et enseignements de l’étude d’un programme de vidéosurveillance de la Ville de Montpellier. Droit. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017GREAD014⟩. ⟨tel-02439529⟩



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