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Dynamique de la réplication chez l'archée Haloferax volcanii

Abstract : Haloferax volcanii is an archaea belonging to the phylum euryarchaeota and the class Halobacteriales. The mechanisms related to replication and repair in archaea are very similar to those found in eukaryotes, making H. volcanii a relevant model organisms for the study of replication and archaeal biology, especially since many genetic tools are available. Interestingly, all replication origins can be removed from the chromosome of H. volcanii, raising many questions about the mechanisms involved. Several hypotheses have been proposed on how this strain initiates its replication, either relying on recombination-dependent replication initiation or an origin-independent mechanism. In order to study these replication-related mechanisms, I have constructed a strain of H. volcanii able to incorporate thymidine analogues into DNA during its synthesis by deleting genes involved in the thymidine biosynthesis pathway. A short-time cultures of the strain in the presence of an analogue allows its incorporation in nascent DNA. By immunodetection of the analog coupled to fluorescence microscopy observation of whole cells, it is possible to investigate the localization of neosynthesized DNA,which reflect the regions where replication is active. These analyses revealed mainly 2 to 3 active replication regions per cell, without any particular location. These regions had already been observed by studying the localization of a key replication protein (RPA2) fused to the fluorescent green protein GFP, confirming its location in active replication areas. A surprising variability in the number of replication foci from one cell to another was observed, suggesting a probabilistic initiation of replication. It is also surprising to observe so few active replication areas compared to the high polyploidy of this strain. This raises the question of what these replication areas correspond to. For further understanding, I developed for H. volcanii molecular combing, to isolate individual DNA molecules and specifically reveal incorporated analogues to determine the number of copies of the chromosome that are being replicated, as well as the number of active origins on each of the copies. I have also developed time-lapse approach to track these regions over time by monitoring cell proliferation directly under the microscope.
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Yoann Collien. Dynamique de la réplication chez l'archée Haloferax volcanii. Organisation et fonctions cellulaires [q-bio.SC]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019SACLX063⟩. ⟨tel-02439197⟩

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