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Spatio-temporal modeling of urban road traffic

Abstract : For past several decades, researchers have been interested in understanding traffic evolution, hence, have proposed various traffic models to identify bottleneck locations where traffic congestion occurs, to detect traffic patterns, to predict traffic states etc. Most of the existing models consider traffic as many-particle system, describe it using different scales of representation and explain its evolution quantitatively by deducing relations between traffic variables like flow, density and speed. Such models are mainly focused on computing precise information about traffic using acquired traffic data. However, computation of such precise information requires more processing resources. A way to remedy this problem is to consider traffic evolution in qualitative terms which reduces the required number of processing resources. Since traffic is spatio-temporal in nature, the models which deal with spatio-temporal phenomenon can be applied in case of traffic. Such models represent spatio-temporal phenomenon from qualitative as well as quantitative standpoints. Depending on the intended application, some models are able to differentiate between various entities taking part in the phenomenon, which proves useful in case of traffic since different objects like vehicles, buildings, pedestrians, bicycles etc., directly affecting traffic evolution, can be included in traffic models. Qualitative spatio-temporal models consider the effects of different entities on each other in terms of spatial relations between them and spatio-temporal evolution of the modeled phenomenon is described in terms of variation in such relations over time. Considering different traffic constituents and spatial relations between them leads to the formation of a structure which can be abstracted using graph, whose nodes represent individual constituents and edges represent the corresponding spatial relations. As a result, the evolution of traffic, represented using graph, is described in terms of evolution of the graph itself, i. e. change in graph structure and attributes of nodes and edges, with time. In this thesis, we propose such a graph model to represent traffic. As mentioned above, one of the applications of existing traffic models is in detecting traffic patterns. However, since such models consider traffic quantitatively, in terms of acquired traffic data, the patterns detected using such models are statistical (a term employed by Pattern Recognition researchers) in the sense that they are represented using numerical description. Since graph-based traffic model proposed in this thesis represents the structure of traffic, it can be employed to redefine the meaning of traffic patterns from statistical to structural (also a term from Pattern Recognition community). Structural traffic patterns include different traffic constituents and their inter-links and are represented using time-varying graphs. An algorithm to detect a given structural traffic pattern in the spatio-temporal graph representing traffic is proposed in this thesis. It formalizes this problem as subgraph isomorphism for time-varying graphs. In the end, the performance of the algorithm is tested using various graph parameters.
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Kamaldeep Singh Oberoi. Spatio-temporal modeling of urban road traffic. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition [cs.CV]. Normandie Université, 2019. English. ⟨NNT : 2019NORMR075⟩. ⟨tel-02438498⟩

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