Network survival with energy harvesting : secure cooperation and device assisted networking

Abstract : The 5th Generation Cellular Network Technology (5G) will be the network supporting the Internet of Things (IoT) and it introduced a major feature, Device-to-Device (D2D) communications. D2D allows energy-constrained wireless devices to save energy by interacting in proximity at a lower transmission power. Cooperation and device-assisted networking therefore raise signicant interest with respect to energy saving, and can be used in conjunction with energy harvesting to prolong the lifetime of battery-powered devices. However, cooperation schemes increase networking between devices, increasing the need for security mechanisms to be executed to assure data protection and trust relations between network nodes. This leads to the use of cryptographic primitives and security mechanisms with a much higher frequency.Security mechanisms are fundamental for protection against malicious actions but they also represent an important source of energy consumption, often neglected due to the importance of data protection. Authentication procedures for secure channel establishment can be computationally and energetically expensive, especially if the devices are resource constrained. Security features such as condentiality and data authentication have a low energetic cost but are used constantly in a device engaged in data exchanges. It is therefore necessary to properly quantify the energy consumption due to security in a device. A security based energy model is proposed to achieve this goal.In User Equipment (UE) D2D networks, mobility is a key characteristic. It can be explored for connecting directly in proximity with IoT objects. A lightweight authentication solution is presented that allows direct UE-IoT communications, extending coverage and potentially saving signicant energy amounts. This approach can be particularly useful in Public Protection and Disaster Relief (PPDR) scenarios where the network infrastructure may not be available.Security features such as condentiality or data authentication are a significant source of consumption. Devices equipped with Energy Harvesting (EH) hardware can have a surplus or a deficit of energy. The applied security can therefore be adjusted to the available energy of a device, introducing an energy aware secure channel. After in depth analysis of 5G standards, it was found that D2D UE networks using this type of channel would spend a signicant amount of energy and be generally less secure. A lightweight rekeying mechanism is therefore proposed to reduce the security overhead of adapting security to energy. To complete the proposed rekeying mechanism, a security parameter bootstrapping method is also presented. The method denes the Core Network (CN) as the security policy maker, makes the overall network more secure and helps preventing communication outages.Adapting security features to energy levels raises the need for the study of the energy/security tradeoff. To this goal, an Markov Decision Process (MDP) modeling a communication channel is presented where an agent chooses the security features to apply to transmitted packets. This stochastic control optimization problem is solved via several dynamic programming and Reinforcement Learning (RL) algorithms. Results show that adapting security features to the available energy can signicantly prolong battery lifetime, improve data reliability while still providing security features. A comparative study is also presented for the different RL learning algorithms. Then a Deep Q-Learning (DQL) approach is presented and tested to improve the learning speed of the agent. Results confirm the faster learning speed. The approach is then tested under difficult EH hardware stability. Results show robust learning properties and excellent security decision making from the agent with a direct impact on data reliability. Finally, a memory footprint comparison is made to demonstrate the feasibility of the presented system even on resource constrained devices.
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Filipe Conceicao. Network survival with energy harvesting : secure cooperation and device assisted networking. Networking and Internet Architecture [cs.NI]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2019. English. ⟨NNT : 2019SACLL020⟩. ⟨tel-02437270⟩

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