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Bergson et la psychologie du dix-neuvième siècle : la métaphysique de mouvements contre Kant

Abstract : Matter and memory of Bergson is considerably inspired by psychological ideas of 19th century. We reproduce the psychological context to clarify how the psychology of the same period urges Bergson to entered into a struggle against Kant and to develop his own thought: discerning and prolong movements.The first chapter is concerned with a notion of “plans of consciousness”. We point out to what extent Bergson takes up views of assimilationists and the pathological psychology (especially that of Pierre Janet) about development of ideas. This detour allows us to define distinctively Bergsonian point of the notion of “plans of consciousness” : it consists in discerning different movements of memory.The next two chapters set about inquiring into a domain of physiological psychology. The development of a notion of reflex action modified the problem of relation between a movement and the I which is its cause and how the notion of causality constitutes the central difficulty (Carpenter, Laycock and Ribot). Fouillée transforms the problem of psychology into that of the condition of given. This detour clarifies a polemic between Kant and Bergson ; indeed, Bergson draws from psychological conceptions a philosophical implication which dismisses a necessity of the Kantian Deduction : he replaces Kantian limitation of phenomenal reality by prolongment of un movement in fact, and that to universal perception of right (en droit). This last point is the canonical of our interpretation.Finally, the last chapter inquires the question of the meaning of being in the critic of the idea of not-being in Creative evolution, that clarifies a relation between the determination and the existence, so that it outlines a Bergsonian conception of reality as movements.
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Yasuto Kiyama. Bergson et la psychologie du dix-neuvième siècle : la métaphysique de mouvements contre Kant. Philosophie. Université Toulouse le Mirail - Toulouse II, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018TOU20060⟩. ⟨tel-02436753⟩



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