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Bases génétiques et évolution du conflit génétique induit par la distorsion de ségrégation des chromosomes sexuels chez Drosophila simulans

Abstract : Meiotic drive is an infringement of the law of allele segregation into the gametes. In heterozygote individuals, the causal genes or genetic elements (meiotic drivers), prevent the production of gamete which does not contain it. Thus, they can spread through populations even if they are deleterious for the carriers.Because they induce sex-ratio bias, sex-linked drivers that are expressed in the heterogametic sex, are an important source of genetic conflict, characterized by the evolution of suppressor which tends to restore a balanced sex ratio. This process can lead to the emergence of new species, evolution of reproductive behavior or sex determination.In Drosophila simulans, X-linked meiotic drivers disturb the segregation of the Y chromosome during male meiosis. The progeny of carrier male is mainly composed of females. One of the drivers is the HP1D2 gene, which encodes a protein that binds to the heterochromatic Y chromosome. The distortion is due to dysfunctional alleles of HP1D2 (low level of expression and/or a deletion of its protein-protein interaction domain). In natural populations where the drivers have spread, they are neutralized by autosomal suppressors and resistant Y chromosomes.The first part of my thesis was focus on the genetic determinism of autosomal suppression. I performed a QTL mapping using recombinant inbreed lines which highlighted the complexity of the genetic determinism of suppression: 5 QTLs and multiple epistatic interaction.The second part is about the Y chromosome, which show important phenotypic variation in the resistance of Y chromosomes to the driver. We studied its molecular and structural variation and the dynamic of resistant Y chromosomes in natural population. The sequencing of different Y chromosomes, sensitive and resistant, allowed us to retrace the evolutionary history of the Y chromosome related to the one of the driver.The last part is a cytological study to compare the localization of the functional and the driver form of HP1D2 in spermatogonia.Generally, results presented here give a better insight regarding the genetic bases and the evolution of the multiple actors of the Paris sex ratio system.
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Cécile Courret. Bases génétiques et évolution du conflit génétique induit par la distorsion de ségrégation des chromosomes sexuels chez Drosophila simulans. Génétique des populations [q-bio.PE]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019SACLS495⟩. ⟨tel-02434987⟩

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