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Perturbative perspectives on the Phase diagram of Quantum ChromoDynamics

Abstract : Unravelling the structure of the QCD phase diagram and its many aspects such as (de)confinementand chiral symmetry breaking, is one of the big challenges of modern theoretical physics, and manyapproaches have been devised to this aim. Since perturbation theory is believed to cease feasibilityat low energy scales, these approaches treat the relevant order parameters, the quark condensate andthe Polyakov loop, non-perturbatively. However, it is also well-established that the starting point forperturbation theory, the Fadeev-Popov gauge-fixing procedure, is inherently ill-defined in the infrareddue to the presence of Gribov ambiguities. In this context, a modified perturbative approach based onthe Curci-Ferrari Lagrangian has been introduced, where a phenomenologically motivated effective gluonmass term is added to the Landau gauge-fixed action. Prior to the beginning of the thesis, this approach hasproven extremely fruitful in its descriptions of (unquenched) Yang-Mills correlation functions and thermodynamics at (non)zero temperature and density.Throughout the thesis we extend this analysis to the entire phase structure of QCD and QCD-liketheories and test the validity of the model in various regimes of interest. For instance, to further aprevious one-loop study in the regime of heavy quark masses, we have computed the two-loop quarksunset diagram in the presence of a non-trivial gluon background in a finite temperature and densitysetting. We come to the conclusion that the physics underlying center symmetry is well-described by our perturbative model with a seemingly robust weak-coupling expansion scheme. Furthermore, we study the regime of light quarks by means of a recently proposed resummation scheme which exploits the presence of actual small parameters in the Curci-Ferrari description of infrared QCD. In the quark sector, this leads to the renown rainbow equations. We extend this first-principle setup to nonzero temperature, chemical potential, and gluon background. We perform a first qualitative analysis of the prediction of the model concerning the possible existence of a critical endpoint in the QCD phase diagram by using a simplified version of these general equations.
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Jan Maelger. Perturbative perspectives on the Phase diagram of Quantum ChromoDynamics. High Energy Physics - Phenomenology [hep-ph]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2019. English. ⟨NNT : 2019SACLX050⟩. ⟨tel-02434842⟩

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