Les dynamismes éruptifs et mécanismes associés en contexte basaltique : étude du Piton de la Fournaise, île de La Réunion, France

Abstract : Basaltic eruptions are increasingly studied in a lot of active volcanoes around the world. Yet, their pre- and syn-eruptive processes are not fully understood. In order to characterize and understand the set of mechanisms occurring from the shallow magmatic system to the surface, this thesis is focused on the study of the eruptive products of Piton de la Fournaise volcano (La Réunion Island, France), which is one of the most active volcano in the world. Integrated textural and chemical analysis on tephra and lava are performed to identify some key parameters which can be related to major magmatic processes, eruptive dynamics and fragmentation processes. When it is available and relevant, these interpretations are integrated with pre- and syn-eruptive monitoring measurements acquired by ground-based and remote sensing observation systems. The first objective of this integrated study is to gain insight on the magmatic overpressure, conduit and eruptive dynamics during basaltic dyke eruptions. During the June 2014 eruption, eruptive triggers and syn-eruptive transitions from Hawaiian-style to mild Strombolian-style activities, associated with a decreasing of the lava flux, have been related to a second boiling mechanism and a pre-eruptive pressurization which was indirectly evidenced by golden pumice emission (highly vesicular and glassy tephra). On the contrary, the July 2015 eruption (relatively scarce golden pumice emission) was triggered by a shallow magmatic input that was tracked in the textural and chemical features of the eruptive products. On year later, another short-lived eruption occurred on September 2016, which emitted a lot of golden pumice. However, this eruption, dominated by Hawaiian fountaining, behaved atypically with an increase in lava flux associated with uncommon ash emission the last day of the eruptive activity. Thus, the second objective of the thesis is to improve our comprehension on the transition from Hawaiian-style (associated with golden pumice and fluidal scoria) to more explosive activities (associated with dense, crystal-rich opaque scoria and ash emission). The integrated study on this eruption supports the hypothesis that the opaque scoria and ash were inherited from the sub-surface cooling and degassing of the golden pumice material. This suggests the formation of a low-permeable plug, which modulated overpressure pulses at shallow levels and transient explosive activity under the late input of a relatively undegassed and ascending magma. It is commonly accepted that effusive activity represents the main emitted magmatic volume in basaltic shield volcanoes. However, the September 2016 eruption reminded us that basaltic eruptions can sometime produce hazards related to ash-dominated events. Therefore, the third purpose of the thesis is to bring together a comprehensive sampling of tephra from major historical and recent eruptions at Piton de la Fournaise and Karthala (Ngazidja Island, Comoros) volcanoes. The study of these different deposits reveals very different textural characteristics reflecting different fragmentation processes, as ductile fragmentation, brittle fragmentation (triggered by syn-eruptive crystallization of the juvenile magma), interactions between magma and external fluids, high magma ascent velocities and shear-induced fragmentation mechanisms during caldera collapse events. All these insights expose a lot of different magmatic and fragmentation processes which highlight the complexity of the mechanisms driving such basaltic eruptions. This thesis only represent a part of the research possibilities on basaltic eruptions. In the future, many additional laboratory studies and real-time monitoring of the eruptive activity can be performed in order to even better understand and better predict the change in eruptive activity than can represent unexpected threats to the environing populations.
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Simon Thivet. Les dynamismes éruptifs et mécanismes associés en contexte basaltique : étude du Piton de la Fournaise, île de La Réunion, France. Volcanologie. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2019. Français. ⟨tel-02430567⟩

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