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Capacité d'un sédiment à se substituer à la fraction argileuse de la matière première de l'industrie des liants hydrauliques

Abstract : Hydroelectric dams, as well as waterways and marine harbours, can be subject to solid particles accumulation. Although sediment is mainly managed within the watercourse by a transfer into the downstream river bed, technical or environmental reasons might imply an on-land management in the future. Albeit sediments should be considered as waste according to regulations, dredged materials appear as valuable and renewable resources. In a circular economy approach, some industrial sectors could beneficially reuse fine-grained dam sediment as alternative raw materials, including hydraulic binders industry. Then, two ways of reusing are considered in this PhD thesis with on one hand, a valorization as raw material in the clinker meal and, on the other hand, as pozzolanic substitute to clinker in blended cements.Studying 8 different sediments that were sampled on the French territory, the approach aims to encompass various contexts and define some typologies. The materials are characterized in detail on physico-chemical and mineralogical aspects. These preliminary characterisations are necessary in order to test both the beneficial reuse opportunities and check the suitability of dredged sediments.The beneficial reuse of sediment in the clinker raw meal as replacement of traditional clay resources is experimented at the lab scale. Clinkers that maximize the fine-grained sediment content, between 25 and 35 % according to the sediment, are synthetized. These clinkers exhibit some special microstructural features that can be corrected by a clay addition as a third compound. Thus, it is shown that any sediment can be reused in the raw meal and that clinker characteristics can be anticipated and adjusted. As a demonstration, a CEM I 52.5 N cement was obtained incorporating 11.4 % of sediment in the raw meal.Concerning pozzolanic reactivity development, physical and mineralogical sediment characteristics are followed according to the calcination temperature. In parallel, pozzolanic reactivity is assessed with both chemical and physical tests, with a partial substitution of Portland cement by calcined sediments in cement pastes, in order to determine an optimum calcination temperature. Kaolinite contents around 10 % for some of the studied samples lead to a moderate to high pozzolanic reactivity, that can be comparable to fly ash. However, for all the sediments that contain calcite and only illite and chlorite clays, activation is low or null.
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Antoine Faure. Capacité d'un sédiment à se substituer à la fraction argileuse de la matière première de l'industrie des liants hydrauliques. Matériaux. Université de Limoges, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LIMO0079⟩. ⟨tel-02428648⟩

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