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Bactériophages infectant la bactérie lactique Oenococcus oeni : diversité et rôles dans l'écosystème oenologique

Abstract : Bacteriophages are viral predators of bacteria and a major concern in fermentations involved in food processing industry. In winemaking, transformation of grape juice into wine involves different types of fermentations. Alcoholic fermentation is driven by yeasts, and can be followed by malolactic fermentation (MLF), especially for red wines, which can improve microbial stability and sensorial quality of wine. The lactic acid bacterium OEnococcus oeni (O. oeni), member of Leuconostocacae family, is generally responsible for the MLF process. Strains of O. oeni are also used as starters to master MLF. O. oeni encounters specific phages called oenophages. Even though the presence of oenophages has been observed, their diversity remains poorly investigated, just like their implications in winemaking. However, high frequency of lysogeny has been observed among O. oeni strains and starters. Risks linked with the presence of phages and lysogeny are questioned in the sector. In the first part of this thesis, oenophages diversity has been studied with the isolation of a large number of phages during the collection of a broad range of oenological samples in South West France. Analysis of samples coming from different wine types and varieties, collected at different steps of winemaking enabled us to highlight an underestimated genomic diversity. We also initiated the development of new molecular tools to study population dynamics among phages and hosts in the winemaking context. Thus, a first approach by Digital Droplet PCR has been used to detect and quantify lysogenic strains. In the second part, phage-host interactions in the presence of wine phenolic compound were investigated. Our results suggest that growth of O.oeni cells in the presence of particular flavonols and phenolic acids reduces adsorption capacities of phages on their host.
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Cécile Philippe. Bactériophages infectant la bactérie lactique Oenococcus oeni : diversité et rôles dans l'écosystème oenologique. Ingénierie des aliments. Université de Bordeaux, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017BORD0936⟩. ⟨tel-02426940⟩

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