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Étude de la mobilité quadrupède en position ventrale chez le nouveau-né et le nourrisson humain

Abstract : Self-produced locomotion is a key stage in infant development, which usually begins with hand and knees crawling in the second semester of life. Since the moment of birth, however, newborns are already capable of autonomous propulsion from a prone position. This precocious form of quadrupedalism remains largely unstudied due in part to the fact that most researchers consider these creeping movements to constitute a mere reflex, destined dissipate as cortical development progresses. Under such an interpretation, this creeping « reflex » would have no link with mature, bipedal walking, would not recruit the upper limbs and would serve mainly as a mechanism by which newborns could reach the maternal breast. Contrary to this point of view, a handful of authors have observed that these patterns of locomotion seem complex, and might persist in some form until the age of 2-3 months. These observations invite us to consider the possibility that such primitive locomotion might be directly involved in the emergence of quadrupedal and bipedal gait. The present thesis examines the various characteristics (particularly cinematic) of this prone mobility, from birth to about six months of age. To this end, we describe the creation of an experimental tool that frees the use of a newborn's limbs and facilitates the aforementioned form of propulsion: the CrawliSkate. We present three studies showing that neonatal prone mobility goes beyond simple reflexes, involves coordination between the upper and lower limbs, and can be partially modified at birth at a supra-spinal level through visual stimulation. Lastly, we demonstrate that this pattern of locomotion persists, albeit with heavy modification, throughout the first semester of life.
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Submitted on : Thursday, January 2, 2020 - 1:55:56 AM
Last modification on : Friday, March 27, 2020 - 2:31:42 AM


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  • HAL Id : tel-02426272, version 1



Vincent Forma. Étude de la mobilité quadrupède en position ventrale chez le nouveau-né et le nourrisson humain. Sciences cognitives. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016USPCB223⟩. ⟨tel-02426272⟩



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