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Interactions Drosophiles-guêpes endoparasitoïdes : rôle des vésicules extracellulaires du venin de Leptopilina boulardi dans le transport de facteurs de virulence et la spécificité d’hôte

Abstract : Endoparasitoid wasps, such as Leptopilina boulardi (Figitidae), develop inside Drosophila host larvae, mainly D. melanogaster. Egg oviposition normally results in a capsule formation by specialized haemocytes, the lamellocytes, associated with a melanization reaction. The parasitic success of L. boulardi relies on injection with the egg of venom that blocks the action of lamellocytes. This venom, synthesized at the level of a specialized gland and stored in a reservoir, contains protein components and original vesicles (venosomes). I have shown that two described virulence factors, LbGAP and LbGAP2 (VFs), are embedded in venosomes during their assembly which seems to occur extracellularly in the duct connecting the venom gland to the reservoir. Microinjection of purified venosomes protects the egg from encapsulation like venom injection. Fluorescently labelled venosomes and VFs co-immunolocalize in lamellocytes after injection and their internalization involves a flotillin/raft-domain-dependent endocytosis. The venosomes internalization rate differs significantly between the Drosophila host species tested (D. melanogaster>D. simulans>D. yakuba>D. suzukii) and is correlated with the parasite success rate, suggesting the existence of specific receptor on lamellocytes of D. melanogaster. Using the HopTum-1 mutant that constitutively produces lamellocytes, I have purified these cells and performed proteomic analysis of their membrane to identify candidate receptors. My results demonstrate that venosomes are interspecies transport vehicles involved in parasite virulence that represent a new level of host specificity.
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Bin Wan. Interactions Drosophiles-guêpes endoparasitoïdes : rôle des vésicules extracellulaires du venin de Leptopilina boulardi dans le transport de facteurs de virulence et la spécificité d’hôte. Biologie cellulaire. Université Côte d'Azur, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017AZUR4143⟩. ⟨tel-02426267⟩

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