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L’auto-inflammation dans le mécanisme de transition de régime de combustion de la déflagration vers la détonation

Abstract : To meet the current environmental challenges, breakthrough solutions compared to existing turbomachines are currently under development.They rely on the use of more efficient thermodynamic cycles.The objective of this thesis is to study experimentally the mechanisms of transition of combustion regime using a kerosene surrogate, n-decane.For this purpose, a deflagration is initiated in a closed chamber and compresses the fresh gases. The pressure and the temperature of the endgas increase until reaching the conditions favorable to the appearance of the autoignition in the chamber.3 successive combustion regimes are characterized in the combustion chamber by means of fast optical diagnostics. A first heat release,associated with the cool flame phenomenon, pre-oxidizes the fresh gases, it is followed by the Main Heat Release (MHR). For the highest initial temperatures, a detonation is observed at the end of the process. Two different transition paths are highlighted: the Deflagration-Autoignition Transition (DAIT) and the Deflagration-Autoignition-Detonation Transition (DAIDT).The sensitivity of regime transitions to the initial conditions of pressure, temperature and mixture composition was characterized by means of several parametric studies. For this purpose, the conditions of temperature, pressure and composition of the mixture are calculated at the onset of the different reactive fronts (cool flame, MHR and detonation). In particular, it has been observed that the successive heat releases of theauto-ignition start at the same temperatures (740 K for the cool flame and 1050 K for the MHR) whatever the initial conditions. The study, then, focused on the analysis of a particular operating point. During the study of this operating point different self-ignition front velocities were observed, highlighting the mechanism of SWACER during the transition.A regime transition criterion proposed by Zander et al. based on numerical studies has been tested in our experimental setup. A modified criterion has been developed to take into account compressibility effects in the reactive flow. The application of this criterion to all the dataset makes possible to predict the appearance of the detonation under the conditions where 0 and 100% of DAIDT are observed. The different regime transition domains have also been positioned on the Bradley diagram (ξ, ε). The modes of combustion predicted by the diagram are consistent with those reached in the chamber.The influence of the initial temperature distribution on the combustion modes achievable in the chamber has been studied. Three topologies of autoignition have been demonstrated for three initial temperature distributions in the chamber. These topologies are separated into two categories, those favoring a particular direction during sequential self-ignition and that exhibiting a three-dimensional behavior.Three-dimensional tests show a very high propensity for DAIDT but a slow spread of autoignition fronts. In this case, another mechanism of transition to detonation is evidenced: the self-ignition of an homogeneous gas pocket generates shock waves and triggers successive autoinflammations during their propagation. The shock coupling / reactive front causes the formation of the detonation. Different transition mechanisms to detonation have been observed and studied over a wide range of pressure, temperature, equivalence ratio and thermal gradient conditions. The obtained results will be useful to support the numerical studies carried out on the subject, which lacks experimental data in academic conditions.
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Hugo Quintens. L’auto-inflammation dans le mécanisme de transition de régime de combustion de la déflagration vers la détonation. Autre. ISAE-ENSMA Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Mécanique et d'Aérotechique - Poitiers, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019ESMA0014⟩. ⟨tel-02426261⟩

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