Implication physiopathologique et pharmacologique des canaux calciques Cav 3.2 dans la douleur chronique

Abstract : Chronic pain is a central concerns to public health. In France, it affects about 20% of the population and has a negative impact on the patients’ quality of life. Current treatments are generally ineffective or associated with strong adverse effects. Therefore, new therapeutic approaches are needed. Among the potential targets, the T-type voltage-dependent calcium channels, in particular the Cav3.2 isoform, constitute candidates of interest. Thus, the objective of this thesis is to characterize their functional implication in two types of chronic pain: visceral and somatic. We have developed a murine model of colonic hypersensitivity associated with low grade inflammation, two symptomatic features close to the symptomatology found in most patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) or with diseases inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) during remission periods. Concerning the somatic pain, we used two murine models of inflammatory pain, one with subacute inflammation and another with persistent inflammation. In these different models, a pharmacological inhibition with the administration of a Cav3.2 channel antagonist, TTA-A2, or a genetic approach using Cav3.2 knockout (KO) mice induced a robust analgesic effect demonstrating a functional implication of Cav3.2 channels in the development and maintenance of these types of pain. Moreover, the use of mice with a Cav3.2 conditional KO, specifically in the C-dorsal root ganglia (DRG) fibers, and the use of ABT-639, a peripherally acting pharmacological blocker of type T channels, allowed us to specify the localization of this implication. Thus, a pre-synaptic spinal action of the Cav3.2 channels has been demonstrated for visceral pain whereas a more complex action of these channels is involved for inflammatory somatic pain. Indeed, for the latter, Cav3.2 channels present a spinal and peripheral implication. In addition, we have shown the role of Cav3.2 channels in the inflammatory process, with an involvement located in the immune cells. Finally, with a translational research approach, we evaluated the effect of ethosuximide (ETX), a T-channel blocker, clinically used in the treatment of epilepsy. We have described an analgesic effect of the latter in both studied models as well as an anti-inflammatory action. These results constitute a pre-clinical proof of concept for a clinical efficacy evaluation of ETX in a context of visceral pain or somatic inflammatory diseases. Altogether these results provide new insight about the involvement of Cav3.2 channels in chronic pain and allow us to propose these channels as targets of interest for the development of new therapeutic strategies to relieve patients.
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Elodie Picard. Implication physiopathologique et pharmacologique des canaux calciques Cav 3.2 dans la douleur chronique. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017CLFAS008⟩. ⟨tel-02426257⟩

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